Dcs f18 weapons

Dcs f18 weapons DEFAULT

Weapons List

The F/A-18C Hornet is a twin-engine, multi-role, carrier-capable fighter aircraft. Designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) and Northrop in the 1970s, it is the only aircraft in the US inventory to carry both the fighter and attack designation (the "F/A" part of the name). The airframe is capable of sharp angles of attack, high G turns (peaking at 7.5G), and supersonic speeds, nearing around Mach 1.8 with afterburner in optimal flight conditions.

The F/A-18C modeled in DCS represents an U.S. Navy Lot 20 aircraft, circa mid 2000s. It is fitted with the F404-GE-402 enhanced performance engines, which are the more powerful engines that replaced the original F404-GE-400 model. Its equipment includes the APG-73 Radar, APX-111 Combined Interrogator/Transponder (CIT), ASQ-228 Advanced Targeting FLIR (ATFLIR), and Link 16 datalink networking capability through a Multifunction Information Distribution System (MIDS) terminal.

The Hornet is designed to be equally capable in both the air-to-air (A/A) and air-to-ground (A/G) arenas. Its avionic system is optimized for efficient single-crew operation of its many subsystems. The F/A-18 carries a wide array of both precision and conventional "dumb" bombs, A/A and A/G missiles, A/G rockets, and is supplemented with an internal 20mm gun mounted in the nose for both A/A and A/G application. The F/A-18's modern avionic system is designed for highly efficient single-crew operation of these weapons and the aircraft subsystems. This includes a fly-by-wire Flight Control System (FCS), which largely reduces the pilot workload in actual flying.

The Hornet entered service in 1978, replacing the A-4, A-7, and F-4 aircraft. It first saw combat in 1986 over the skies of Libya with numerous Hornets performing suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) strikes and conventional A/G attack missions. It again saw action during the Gulf War of 1991, as there were 106 in theater with the U.S. Navy (USN) along with a further 84 U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) aircraft that were shore-based. It was during the Gulf War when the Hornet was credited with its first A/A kills: two Iraqi MiG-21s, shot down by AIM-9 and AIM-7 missiles. Notably, the two F/A-18s credited with the kills went on to resume their strike mission and dropped their four Mk-84s (2,000lbs unguided bombs), living up to their multi-role moniker. The Hornet took its first combat losses in the Gulf War as well; in total, 10 received battle damage, which included 3 losses (two to ground fire and one very likely to an Iraqi MiG-25). All told, Hornets flew a total of 4,551 sorties in the Gulf War.

Since the Gulf War, the Hornet has been a vital piece of the USN/USMC inventory and has seen action in every conflict or operation since then. While it is still in active service with the Marine Corps until the early 2030s, in 2018 the Navy retired the F/A-18C/D from combat roles and in 2021 ended its use as the Blue Angels demonstration squadron aircraft. The F/A-18C/D Hornet served as the baseline for the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and the E/A-18G Growler.


The F/A-18 can use the following air-to-air (A/A) and air-to-ground (A/G) weapons.


Flight Controls

The F/A-18C has multiple flight control surfaces for maneuvering the aircraft. It has a "fly-by-wire" (FBW) system, which, opposed to a traditional mechanical or "direct" control system, the inputs given by the cockpit controls are inputted to a computer which then decides what controls to move in order to accomplish the desired maneuver. This computerized system is called the Flight Control System (FCS). The FCS also moves surfaces as a function of the angle of attack to provide the best control.

The F/A-18's primary flight controls are:

  • Stabilators (STAB): Two "stabilators" (stabilizer + elevator) located at the tail move on a single axis independently of one another to control both pitch and roll of the aircraft.
  • Ailerons (AIL): Two normal ailerons located on the outer area of the wings to control roll of the aircraft. They also both droop down to add lift.
  • Rudders (RUD): Two twin, inward-tilted rudders which move on a normal left/right axis to control yaw and are also be pointed inward as a schedule of AOA ("toe-in").
  • Leading Edge Flaps (LEF): Normal slats located on the leading (front) edge of the wings to add lift.
  • Trailing Edge Flaps (LEF): Normal flaps located on the trailing (back) edge of the wings to add lift.

The control stick controls the stabilators, ailerons, and rudder and the rudder pedals control the rudder.

The FCS will limit the aircraft to a specific G-force no matter the control input. The G-limit is based on weight and will not exceed 7.5g (which will only be met in practice in clean or near clean configurations). The G-limiter can be overridden as long as the paddle switch on the stick is held down, which will change the limit to 133% of the previous G-limit. This is designed only as an emergency system and may cause damage to the airframe and/or exceed pilot G tolerance.

Flaps System

The aircraft's flap system provides more lift (and as a byproduct, drag). The flaps switch has three positions:

  • AUTO: Without weight on wheels, LEFs and TEFs are moved depending on angle of attack. With weight on wheels, LEFs, TEFs, and aileron droop are set to 0°.
  • HALF: Above 250kt IAS, flaps act as when in AUTO. Below 250kt, LEFs and TEFs drop as a function of angle of attack. TEFs and aileron droop activate based on airspeed; maximum deflection is 30°. With weight on wheels, the LEFs are set to 12°. TEFs and aileron droop are set to 30°. With weight on wheels, rudders are set to 30°. Aileron droop is set to 0° when wings are unlocked.
  • FULL: Above 250kt, flaps act as when in AUTO. Below 250kt IAS, LEFs are scheduled as a function of AOA. TEFs and aileron droop activate based on airspeed; maximum is 45° TEF and 42° aileron droop. With weight on wheels, the LEFs are set to 12° and RUDs to 30°. The TEFs are set to 43° to 45° and aileron droop to 42°. Aileron droop is set to 0° when wings are unlocked.

In the left area of the forward panel there are three flap indicator lights. A green HALF light displays when the flaps move to HALF. A green FULL light displays when the flaps move to FULL. An amber FLAPS light displays when the flaps are not functioning properly in relation to the switch position or the switch is not in AUTO above 250kt.

Speedbrake

The speedbrake is a flap located on the top of the aircraft designed to provide drag to decelerate faster. It is activated via the speedbrake switch on the throttle. The three psotitions are:

  • Aft: Speedbrake will extend as long as it is held.
  • Center: Speedbrake will stay in place, unless the flaps are FULL, or the aircraft is pulling more than 6.0G or 28° angle of attack. When the speedbrake is closed and the switch is in this position, it may creep up above 400kt IAS.
  • Forward: The speedbrake retracts as long as it is in this position and will not creep up when fully retracted.

Located above the left DDI is a "SPD BRK" light. This light comes on whenever the speedbrake is not fully retracted.

Trim

The stabilator and ailerons are capable of being trimmed to make roll and pitch corrections. This is accomplished with the trim switch on the control stick. When the flaps are in AUTO, the stabilator is automatically trimmed so the aircraft pulls 1.0G when the control stick isn't moved, but manual trim will override this and the aircraft will then trim to maintain that G when the stick isn't moved. In HALF or FULL flaps, it will maintain an angle of attack which is changed via trim.

For a field takeoff, the stabilator are trimmed to +12°. The T/O trim button on the left console will trim the stabilators to +12° and place all other trim at 0°.

The rudders can also be trimmed via a knob on the left console that surrounds the T/O trim button.

FCS Format

Section WIP.

Wing Fold

Primarily for carrier operations to conserve space, the F/A-18's wings are capable of folding upward. This is accomplished via the wing fold lever on the right side of the cockpit. It has three positions which can only be alternated by pulling the lever out, which unlocks the wings.

  • FOLD: The wings fold.
  • HOLD: The wings are held in the present position.
  • SPREAD: The wings unfold.

The wings will not fold without weight on wheels.

Landing Gear

The F/A-18 has retractable landing gear with three arms, the nose gear, the left gear, and the right gear. The left and right gear have large suspension and are designed to take heavy impacts, upwards of approximately -600 feet per minute, due to the aggressive touchdowns of carrier recoveries. The gear is moved via the gear lever on the left side of the cockpit. In the up position, the gear will retract. In the down position, the gear will extend. The gear lever cannot be put up with weight on wheels. The gear will not retract with the arresting hook down or launch bar extended.

The gear lever's inability to be raised when there is weight on wheels can be overridden via the DOWN LOCK ORIDE button near the lever. The gear lever can be rotated to perform an emergency gear extension, which will depressurize the hydraulics in the gear and allow it to free fall into place.

Controlled by the toe brakes on the rudder pedals, the left and right landing gear have independent brakes. On the nosegear there is a light generally used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing, termed the TAXI/LDG light. It is turned on and off via the switch on the left side of the cockpit.

Nosewheel Steering

The nose gear features nosewheel steering (NWS) controlled by the rudder pedals. When in NWS LO (low), the default mode, the NWS can turn left/right 16°. When in high-gain NWS, termed NWS HI, the NWS can turn left/right 75°. NWS or NWS HI is indicated appropriately on the HUD. Nothing is indicated when NWS is disengaged.

With weight off wheels, it is disengaged. It automatically engages upon there being weight on wheels. NWS is disengaged manually via the paddle switch on the stick. NWS LO is engaged manually by momentarily pressing the NWS button on the stick. With the wing fold handle in the FOLD or HOLD positions, pressing the NWS button will toggle NWS HI. With the wing fold handle in the SPREAD position, NWS HI is activated as long as the NWS button is held. With the launch bar extended, NWS HI cannot be engaged; NWS LO is automatically disengaged but is engaged as long as the NWS button is held.

Launch Bar

On the front nosegear is a launch bar that attaches the airplane to a catapult from launches from an aircraft carrier. Its deployment is pilot-controllled, but it is connected to the catapult by the ground crew (DCS default binding is U).

It is controlled via the launch bar switch on the left upper console. When the switch in the RETRACT position, the launch bar will retract, but physically cannot do so when connected to the catapult. The switch will move to the RETRACT position automatically when there is weight off wheels. In the EXTEND position, the launch bar will extend if there is weight on wheels.

Above the left DDI is a green "L BAR" indication, which displays whenever the launch bar is down with weight on wheels. Near it is a red "L BAR" indication, which displays whenever the launch bar is down with weight off wheels. The red indication is a sign of a malfunction with the launch bar if it does not extinguish quite soon after the airplane is airborne.


The F/A-18 has the ability to automate certain types of flight via its Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) and Automatic Throttle Control (ATC). The AFCS, or simply the autopilot, controls the flight surfaces and the ATC controls the throttles.

AFCS

The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), or just the "autopilot", controls the aircraft's flight controls to automate maneuvering. It is interfaced on the UFC via the A/P button.

The most basic mode of the AFCS is Control Stick Steering (CSS). CSS will attempt to maintain the pitch and roll of the aircraft without manual stick input. Roll input is dampened and pitch input is severely dampened. The trim switch is repurposed in CSS to command roll and pitch. Forward or aft stick deflection beyond a certain point will disengage CSS. CSS is engaged manually by pressing the UFC ON/OFF button in the A/P menu and also engages with all other autopilot modes.

In the A/P menu, there are five main autopilot modes, toggled by pressing the option select button next to their window.

  • Attitude Hold (ATTH): maintains the current pitch attitude and bank angle. ATTH only functions within plus or minus 45° pitch and 70° left or right bank.
  • Heading Select (HSEL): steers to the current heading selected by the heading select switch. The current heading can be viewed on the Horizontal Situation Indicator format.
  • Barometric Altitude Hold (BALT): maintains the current barometric altitude between 0 and 70,000ft.
  • Radar Altitude Hold (RALT): maintains the current Radar altitude between 0 and 5,000ft.
  • Coupled Steering (CPL): Not yet implemented.

The AFCS is fully disengaged by pressing the paddle switch on the control stick.

ATC

The Automatic Throttle Control (ATC), or just "autothrottle", controls the physical throttles and thereby automates thrust control. It cannot control or move the throttles into the afterburner detent. ATC is toggled via the ATC engage/disengage button on the throttle. "ATC" will appear on the HUD when it is engaged. It can also be disengaged by manually moving the throttles or if it is unable to maintain the desired speed. When disengaged, "ATC" will flash and then disappear. It has two modes:

  • Cruise: When the flaps are in AUTO, activating the ATC will hold the current indicated airspeed.
  • Approach: Not yet implemented.

The F/A-18C Hornet is equipped with an expansive avionic software suite. This is organized into various pages, termed "formats," which provide information and allow the pilot to control a wide range of sub-systems.

The pilot interacts with these systems via the Multipurpose Display Group. This consists of:

  • Head-Up Display (HUD) - A collimated single-color (green) display projected onto a glass at the top of the cockpit front panel. The HUD is the primary flight instrument and also provides cuing for weapon and sensor employment.
  • Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) - A monocular single-color display mounted on the helmet in front of the right eye. The HMD duplicates most HUD symbology for reference when the pilot is not looking through the HUD. The HMD provides the unique ability to cue weapons/sensors and display targets outside the HUD field of view.
  • Left/Right Digital Display Indicator (LDDI/RDDI) - Two tricolor (green, red, and yellow) multifunctional screens are situated on the left and right sides of the front panel. The DDIs provide interfacing with all avionic subsystems.
  • Advanced Multipurpose Color Display (AMPCD) - An all-color multifunctional screen situated at the bottom center of the cockpit. The AMPCD is usually used as a navigation display with either the HSI or the SA format.

The software on the multipurpose displays (LDDI, RDDI, or AMPCD) is manipulated by 20 pushbuttons (PBs). 5 are situated on each side. The PBs are numbered clockwise, beginning with the left row, bottom-most PB and ending with the bottom row, left-most PB. Access to all areas of the software is done from the central Tactical (TAC) and Support (SUPT) menus.

DDI Labels 2.png
  1. [TAC]/[SUPT] Menu - The available formats are split into the Tactical [TAC] and Support [SUPT] menus. The current menu is indicated by this [TAC] or [SUPT] legend. On any format, the bottom center pushbutton (PB18) will always invoke the [TAC] menu as a universal "return to menu" button. Selecting PB18 on the [TAC] menu will invoke the [SUPT] menu and vice-versa.
  2. System Time - With weight off wheels, the system time value is displayed here for maintenance purposes. Otherwise, the word MENU is displayed.
  3. Cautions - System cautions are displayed here on the left DDI in large text. Cautions display until the condition that caused them to display no longer exists. Cautions "spill" over from the LDDI to the MPCD and then the RDDI (in order) if there is not enough space to display all cautions or if a display fails.
  4. Advisories - Advisories are displayed here on the left DDI in regular text, separated by commas. Advisories display until the condition causing them to display no longer exists. Advisories "spill over" from the LDDI to the MPCD and then the RDDI (in order) if there is not enough space to display all advisories. Advisories are also moved to the MPCD if the LDDI is off or failed, is displaying a weapon video format (e.g. Maverick missile format), or is displaying the BIT format. A new advisory is indicated by being spaced away from the ADV- line and any previously acknowledged advisories. To acknowledge a new advisory, the master caution switch is pressed twice. The advisory will then "stack" directly next to the ADV- line.

The [TAC] menu provides weapon- and sensor-related displays, such as the Stores Management Set (SMS), Radar, and FLIR formats. The [SUPT] menu provides navigation and technical interfaces, such as the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) and Flight Control System (FCS) formats.

Selecting a format that is already displayed on another display will replace the format on that display with the [TAC] menu. For example, if the STORES format is on the RDDI, selecting the STORES format on the LDDI will display the STORES format on the LDDI and display the [TAC] menu on the RDDI. An exception applies to the HSI format, which can be displayed on the AMPCD and either the left or right DDI simultaneously, but not on both DDIs.

HOTAS

In addition to interfacing with the avionics using the pushbuttons (PBs) on the DDIs and MPCD, the F/A-18's hands on throttle and stick (HOTAS) control setup allows the pilot to manipulate various important functions without taking the hands off the throttle or the control stick. There are also some functions only available through the HOTAS.

This section will describe general HOTAS usage. Consult the appropriate sections for detailed descriptions of individual HOTAS functions for specific systems.

Throttle

  1. Exterior Lights Switch - This switch is a master off control for the exterior lights with the exception of the landing/taxi light. In the aft position, all exterior lights are turned off. In the forward position, all exterior lights respond to their associated knobs on the left console.
  2. RAID Switch - The RAID switch performs various functions. Normally, it commands the Radar in and out of RAID mode if already in TWS or STT; from TWS it commands SCAN RAID and from STT it commands STT RAID. When the TDC is assigned to the FLIR format, it cycles between wide (WFOV), medium (MFOV), and narrow (NAR) fields of view (FOVs). When the HARM missile is selected in the SMS, it cycles Self Protect (SP) or Target of Opportunity (TOO) mode targets. When the infrared Maverick is selected in the SMS, it switches between wide and narrow seeker FOVs.
  3. ATC Switch - The ATC switch toggles the automatic throttle control (ATC) or "autothrottle" function, which automatically moves the throttle levers to maintain a speed. With the flaps set to AUTO, it toggles cruise ATC mode. With the flaps set to HALF or FULL, it toggles powered approach ATC mode. Refer to Automatic Throttle Control for details on these modes.
  4. Throttle Designation Controller (TDC) - The TDC switch on the throttle is used for a wide variety of slewing functions, analogous to a computer mouse. The TDC must be assigned to a format on either the LDDI, RDDI, or MPCD to manipulate it using the Sensor Control switch ("Castle switch") on the stick. Refer to Control Stick. Once the TDC is assigned to a format, a diamond is displayed in the upper-right corner and it can then be used to manipulate that format. On the Radar/Attack format, for example, the TDC slews the cursor which is used for a variety of functions such as target selection and scan centering; on the FLIR format, it physically points the FLIR and performs designation.

    In A/G and NAV master mode, the TDC can also be assigned to the HUD/HMD. It can then be used to create and/or slew an A/G target designation. A dot appears in the center of the velocity vector when assigned to the HUD and in the center of the dynamic aiming cross when assigned to the HMD. The TDC is assigned to one or the other (not both), but the switching is automatic such that whenever the head is pointed away from the automatic blanking zone (i.e. not at the HUD or inside the cockpit), the TDC is assigned to the HMD. Otherwise (i.e. when looking at the HUD or inside the cockpit), it is assigned to the HUD. Note that the Sensor Control switch only has to be pressed forward once at which point the TDC will swap between the HUD/HMD automatically.
  5. Cage/Uncage Switch - The Cage/Uncage switch performs numerous functions. In NAV master mode, it toggles the velocity vector on the HUD between caged operation, where a centered velocity vector and a "true" velocity vector is displayed, and uncaged operation, where a single true velocity vector is displayed. When the AIM-9 missile is selected it commands the seeker to independently track. With the AMRAAM missile it toggles between Boresight Visual and Command Inertial Active launch modes. With the Sparrow missile it toggles between lofted and normal missile trajectories. With TDC assigned to the A/G FLIR format it toggles Laser Spot Tracker (LST) operation. With the HARM missile selected, in TOO mode it commands the selected target to be handed off to the HARM missile for launch and in SP mode it selects the highest priority emitter. With the Maverick missile selected it cages and uncages the seeker.
  6. Communications Switch - This four-way switch serves as a push to talk (PTT) button for all four voice radios the F/A-18 can communicate on. Forward and aft transmit on the COMM1 and COMM2 radios, while up and down transmit on the MIDS voice A and voice B radios.
  7. Countermeasures Switch - The Countermeasures switch controls the Countermeasure Dispense System (CMDS). Its function depends on the CMDS mode. Except in BYPASS, the forward position always commands countermeasure program 5. In BYPASS, the forward position releases one chaff bundle and the aft position releases one flare. In S/A (semi-auto), the aft position gives consent to dispense the automatically selected program. In AUTO, the aft position has no function. Note that in both S/A and AUTO the forward position releases program 5.

Control Stick

  1. Sensor Control Switch - The Sensor Control switch on the flight control stick, commonly termed the "Castle switch" due to its shape resembling a castle, is used for various functions. Primarily, the purpose of the Sensor Control switch is to assign the Throttle Designator Controller (TDC) switch to formats to define what is manipulated by the TDC. Once the TDC is assigned to a format, however, the Sensor Control switch can perform further functions with subsequent actuations toward that format. For example, with the TDC already assigned to the A/A Attack format, a subsequent bump toward the Attack format usually commands the Radar into track on the target under the cursor. Functions like this are detailed in the appropriate sections.

    The left, right, and aft switch positions assign the TDC to the LDDI, RDDI, and MPCD in all master modes. When the format on a given display cannot accept TDC assignment (e.g. Tactical Menu format or FPAS format) and the Sensor Control switch is pressed toward it, it automatically invokes a format on that display. On the LDDI, in A/A master mode only, the Sensor Control switch invokes the Az/El format. On the RDDI, the Sensor Control switch invokes the Radar/Attack format in the last A/A or A/G Radar mode selected. On the MPCD, it invokes the HSI format. With the TDC assigned to the HSI format or the SA format, on any display, the Sensor Control switch cycles the two formats.

    The forward position function is dependent on master mode:

    In NAV and A/G master mode, it assigns the TDC to the HUD/HMD. The actual TDC assignment between the HUD versus the HMD occurs automatically at all times and does not require subsequent Sensor Control switch activations. Refer to Throttle for details.

    In A/A master mode, the forward position of the Sensor Control switch enters the Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) condition, from which the close-range, visual Radar acquisition modes can be selected. Upon first Castling forward, the Radar enters Helmet Acquisition mode. It can then be used to select the other ACM modes: Long Range Helmet Acq, Wide Acq, and Vertical Acq. Refer to Air Combat Maneuvering Modes. The Undesignate button will exit the ACM condition and return to normal "top level" Sensor Control switch functionality. Note that a special scenario occurs when the A/A Gun is selected, where the Radar is always in the ACM condition (i.e. it cannot be exited). As such, the Sensor Control switch is always configured for ACM functionality when the Gun is selected.

    The depress position is used as a modifier. Depressing the Castle switch and then pressing right commands an IFF interrogation on the target under the cursor.
  2. A/A Weapon Select Switch - The Weapon Select Switch is used to select the A/A missiles and the A/A Gun. Selecting any A/A weapon with the switch also automatically enters A/A master mode, initializes the A/A Radar/Attack format on the RDDI, and the Stores format on the LDDI. If the Gun is selected, it also enters the Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) condition and commands the Radar into Gun Acquisition mode. Subsequent actuations in the same direction after a weapon is selected will step through the different stations of that weapon that are loaded.
  3. Trim Switch - The Trim Switch commands pitch and roll trim to the Flight Control System (FCS).
  4. Undesignate/NWS Button - The Undesignate button is used to undesignate the A/G target designation in the NAV or A/G master modes.

    In A/A master mode, it performs a designation function by stepping the Launch & Steering (L&S) target designation through all ranked trackfiles. If a Secondary Designated Target (DT2) has been designated also, the Undesignate button instead swaps the L&S and DT2 designations. If the Radar is in STT, Spotlight, SCAN RAID, ACM, or FLOOD, the Undesignate button exits those modes instead of affecting the L&S/DT2.

    When pressed twice within one second, the Undesignate toggles the FLIR Velocity Vector Slaved (VVSLV) pointing mode.

    With weight on wheels, it serves as the NWS button. If NWS is off, it activates NWS. With NWS on, it will command high gain NWS (NWS HI). When the wings are folded the high gain steering is a toggle, while when not folded the high gain steering is only engaged while the button is held down.
  5. Trigger - The trigger is used to fire all A/A weapons (missiles and Gun), the A/G Gun, and the Laser Target Designator/Ranger (LTD/R).
  6. A/G Weapon Release Button - The Weapon Release Button is used to release all A/G munitions other than the Gun.

Master Modes

The avionics has three mutually exclusive master modes: Navigation (NAV), Air-to-Ground (A/G), and Air-to-Air (A/A). Each master mode is tailored to that purpose with some functionality overlap. A general overview of the master modes is provided in this section.

NAV Master Mode

In NAV master mode, the HUD is tailored to navigation. No weapon cuing is displayed, the bank angle scale is displayed, and the velocity vector can be toggled between caged and uncaged operation. The FLIR operates in A/G mode while in NAV. A/G weapon selection and programming is available, but weapon release is not permitted. Note that the A/A weapons are exclusive to A/A master mode. All A/G and A/A Radar modes are available, with the exception of the A/A Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) modes. Additionally, the Azimuth/Elevation (Az/El) format is not available.

NAV master mode is indicated by neither the "A/A" nor "A/G" lights being illuminated on the Master Arm Panel. It is selected by deselecting either the A/G or A/A master mode. NAV is also the only master mode available when the gear is down with no weight on wheels; i.e. in the air with the gear down. NAV is automatically selected on the ground when the throttle levers are advanced past 27°. This is to force NAV master mode on takeoff.

A/G Master Mode

A/G master mode allows for the release of A/G munitions and for HUD cuing to be shown for A/G weapons. A/G master mode also allows for the weapon formats to be displayed for Maverick missile. A/G master mode is otherwise similar to NAV master mode since NAV still allows for A/G weapon programming, A/G FLIR operation, and A/G Radar operation. In A/G, however, A/A Radar operation is more limited in that MSI trackfiles are not processed. As such TWS mode and STT mode are not available, and RWS does not process any trackfiles.

A/G master mode is selected with the A/G button on the Master Arm Panel and is indicated by the "A/G" light. Upon selection the Stores and Radar formats are displayed on the left and right DDIs.

A/A Master Mode

The A/A master mode is tailored toward A/A combat. In A/A master mode, an A/A weapon is always selected and appropriate cuing is displayed on the HUD and Radar/Attack format. A/A master mode makes the Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) modes available as well as the Azimuth/Elevation (Az/El) format. The A/G Radar modes are not available in A/A. The FLIR operates in A/A mode. A/G designation is not available. A/G weapons cannot be selected/programmed in A/A.

A/A master mode can be selected with the A/A button on the Master Arm Panel on which the "A/A" light is illuminated. The A/A master mode can also be selected using the Weapon Select switch on the stick. Upon entering A/A master mode the Stores and Radar/Attack formats are automatically displayed on the left and right DDIs. This mechanization makes it easy to rapidly configure for an A/A engagement via the HOTAS.

UFC

UFC Labels 1.png

The Up-Front Controller (UFC) is a keypad and miniature display interface used for entering information into various avionics systems; this ranges from coordinates for a GPS-guided bomb to a TACAN station frequency.

This section will provide a general overview of UFC operation as well as communication radio operation. The specific UFC options for various systems will be detailed in the relevant sections.

  1. Keypad - A keypad with numbers 0-9, clear, and enter keys. The number 2, 4, 6, and 8 double as a way of entering the four cardinal directions. The number 0 doubles as a way of entering the minus sign (-).
  2. Multifunction Display Windows and Pushbuttons - These small, narrow displays and their corresponding pushbuttons will generally include a value to manipulate; the window with said value is selected and then the information for that value is entered with the keypad. A colon is added to the option being manipulated.
  3. COMM1 Volume
  4. COMM2 Volume
  5. COMM1 Control Knob
  6. COMM2 Control Knob
  7. UFC Menu - Autopilot (A/P), Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF), TACAN (TCN), Instrument Carrier Landing System (ILS), Datalink (D/L), BCN (not yet implemented), and a multifunction ON/OFF button which has different functionality based on the selected system.
  8. Transponder ident button (no use in DCS).
  9. ADF Selector - Selects either the COMM1 or COMM2 radio as the aircraft's automatic direction finder (ADF) source.
  10. Scratchpad - This display shows the values entered by the keypad.
  11. UFC Brightness - All the way left turns the UFC off.
  12. Not yet implemented.

Communication Radios

The F/A-18 has two standard communications radios, termed COMM1 and 2. Control of them is integrated with the upfront controller.

The radios are powered via the COMM1 and 2 volume knobs; the radio will be on when its knob is not all the way left. The knobs also control the volume of their respective radios. Audio from both radios is always received when they are on, but the communications switch on the throttle controls which one is transmitted on.

The COMM1 or COMM2 menu is accessed by pulling on the respective radio knob. This will bring up the preset and frequency on the scratchpad. A new frequency can be entered via the keypad. The display window above the knobs displays the current preset, which can be switched to via turning the knobs. Each radio has a separate set of 20 numbered presets, as well as a guard preset set to 243.000, the standard military guard frequency (G), manual frequency (M), maritime frequency (S), and cue frequency for the Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (C).

The multifunction windows will display various options:

  • GRCV (Guard Receive): Toggles audio monitoring of the guard frequency.
  • SQCH (Squelch): Toggles radio squelch (removal of static).
  • AM/FM: Indicates whether the selected frequency is in the AM or FM band.
  • Cypher (CPHR): Not yet implemented.

Head-up Display

HUD NAV Master Mode Labels 3.png

This section will only cover the primary flight instruments that are on the HUD in NAV master mode. The HUD also provides various navigation, sensor, and weapon cues that are detailed in the relevant sections.

  1. Altitude - This is the aircraft altitude displayed in feet either above sea level (MSL) or above ground level (AGL) dependent on the altitude source switch position (below the UFC) and the Radar altimeter receiving a valid readout. The Radar altimeter will always be considered invalid above 5,000 ft. Below the altitude indication, whenever the barometric pressure is changed via the knob on the standby altimeter or the aircraft is below 10,000 feet, at an airspeed less than 300 knots, and was previously above both values, the currently set barometric pressure (in inHg) is flashed for five seconds.
    1. Altitude source set to barometric - barometric altitude is displayed
    2. Altitude source set to Radar, Radar altimeter readout is valid - Radar altitude is displayed and indicated by an R
    3. Altitude source set to Radar, Radar altimeter readout is invalid - barometric altitude is displayed and indicated by a flashing B
  2. Vertical Speed - Current vertical speed in feet per minute.
  3. Heading Tape - This indicates the current magnetic or true heading, based on the option in the HSI format DATA sublevel. The heading caret indicates the current heading on the tape which is either an arrow (magnetic heading) or "T" symbol (true heading). The heading tape is raised +1.25° from its position in NAV master mode when in A/G or A/A.
  4. Horizon Line - Indicates the horizon.
  5. Pitch Ladder - Numbered lines indicate degrees above or below the horizon. Lines below are dashed while lines above are solid. As the angle increases, the lines curve sharper toward the horizon. The pitch ladder is centered on the solid velocity vector (whether caged or uncaged). When the velocity vector leaves the field of view of the HUD, the pitch ladder moves to center on the waterline.
  6. Bank Angle - The triangle indicates current bank angle to a maximum of 47°. When bank angle is greater than 47°, the triangle flashes. The marks indicate in either direction 5°, 15°, 30°, and 45° angles of bank.
  7. Peak G - This is the highest G-force the aircraft has achieved when the peak is at least 4.0G. Peak G is reset when the reject mode is set to REJ 1/2 and back to NORM.
  8. G Indicator
  9. Mach Number
  10. Angle of Attack - The current angle of attack in degrees.
  11. Ghost / True Velocity Vector - When the velocity vector is uncaged, this segmented velocity vector symbol indicates the true horizontal and vertical velocity of the aircraft. When caged, it is blanked and the solid velocity vector indicates both horizontal/vertical velocity.
  12. Vertical Velocity Vector - When the velocity vector is uncaged, this solid velocity vector indicates only the vertical velocity of the aircraft and is vertically centered within the pitch latter. When the velocity vector is caged, the solid velocity vector indicates the true horizontal and vertical velocity of the aircraft.
  13. Indicated Airspeed - The current indicated airspeed in knots.
  14. Waterline - This W symbol is the point of reference for the aircraft pitch. In other words, it indicates the nose of the aircraft. The waterline is only displayed when the velocity vector is outside the field of view of the HUD or when the gear lever is down.

Gear Down HUD

When the landing gear is down/locked, NAV master mode is forced (when airborne). The following HUD changes occur:

  • Waterline is constantly displayed
  • Angle of attack bracket is displayed
  • Horizon line is elongated
  • Mach, G, and peak G are removed
  • Angle of attack is removed if velocity vector is within AOA bracket

AOA Bracket

The angle of attack (AOA) bracket is an "E"-shaped bracket displayed on the HUD when the gear is down. The bracket's position relative to the velocity vector indicates angle of attack. Three tick marks on the E shape indicate, from top to bottom, 6.9°, 8.1°, and 9.3° AOA, with 8.1 being optimal "on speed AOA" for landing.

Symbology Reject Modes

Via the HUD reject switch below the UFC, information may be rejected (removed) from the HUD.

  • NORM: Nothing is rejected.
  • REJ 1: Removes box around airspeed and altitude; removes Mach number, current G, peak G, and bank angle indication.
  • REJ 2: Removes heading tape.

Velocity Vector Caging

The velocity vector can either be "caged" or "uncaged", toggled in NAV via the Cage/Uncage button on the throttle. In A/A it is always caged and in A/G it is always uncaged.

In caged operation, two velocity vectors are shown: the vertical velocity vector, which is "caged" to the HUD center and only indicates the vertical velocity of the airplane, and the ghost velocity vector, which displays both the horizontal and vertical velocity. The ghost velocity vector is displayed as a segmented version of the vertical one. The ghost velocity vector only displays when it would be at least 2° from the caged velocity vector.

In uncaged operation, a single true velocity vector is shown. This indicates the horizontal and vertical velocity of the aircraft (functioning identically to the ghost velocity vector when caged). The true velocity vector appears the same as the vertical velocity vector does in caged operation.

HUD Format

The HUD format is a repeater of the HUD symbology accessible from the [TAC] menu.

Helmet-Mounted Display

The F/A-18C Hornet is equipped with the Joint Helmet Mounted Cuing System (JHMCS) as its helmet mounted display (HMD). It allows for HUD indications to be shown no matter where the head is looking and integrates with various sensor and weapon systems. The HMD allows the pilot to see targeting symbology outside the field of view of the HUD, such as A/A and A/G targets, and cue various systems with the head, such as the Radar.

The HMD duplicates most symbology found on the HUD except symbology that would not be useful on a helmet display. As such, the velocity vector, pitch ladder, and bank angle indicator is not displayed. Furthermore, the heading tape represents where the HMD is centered instead of mirroring the HUD, which indicates the aircraft heading. The numeric heading of the aircraft can, however, be seen on the HMD directly below the heading tape. A number above the heading tape indicates the vertical angle of the HMD relative to the horizon.

The symbology reject switch only affects that HUD and not the HMD. HMD symbology can be rejected via the HMD format on the [SUPT] menu.

In NAV and A/G, TDC is assigned to the HUD.HMD via Sensor Control switch forward. When the HMD is pointed outside the automatic blanking zone, the TDC is assigned to the HMD and is indicated by a dot in the center of the Aiming Cross. When pointed inside (i.e. looking within the cockpit or at the HUD), the TDC is assigned to the HUD.

HMD power is controlled via the HMD brightness knob located right of the RDDI. The HMD is powered when the knob is anywhere but the leftmost rotation. The HMD can be blanked and unblanked by pressing the RECCE Event Marker button on the stick. The HMD remains powered when blanked and avionics systems do not revert to "HMD off" logic when blanked; for example, the AIM-9 will continue to cue to the HMD even when the symbology is blanked.

HMD Format

HMD Format Labels 1.png

When the HMD is on, the HMD format can be accessed on the [SUPT] menu. This allows for control of some HMD settings.

  1. Brightness - Sets HMD brightness, cycling between AUTO, DAY, and NIGHT. In AUTO, brightness will automatically be set for best visibility. In DAY, full brightness as selected by the HMD brightness knob is allowed. In NIGHT, half the brightness that would be set for DAY is set with the HMD brightness knob.
  2. Automatic Blanking - When this option is boxed, the HMD will automatically blank everything except the aiming cross when looking inside the cockpit or at the HUD.
  3. HMD Reject Modes - This cycles between NORM, REJ 1, and REJ 2 HMD reject modes. These are independent of the HUD reject settings.
  4. Not yet implemented.
  5. Not yet implemented.
  6. Not yet implemented.
  7. Reject Setup Sublevel - Invokes the reject setup sublevel to allow for customization of the symbology displayed in each reject mode.

The F/A-18C has an inertial navigation system (INS), assisted by the Global Positioning System (GPS), capable of storing arbitrary digital, GPS-coordinate based series of waypoints, navigating to both ground- and air-based tactical air navigation (TACAN) stations and non-directional beacons (NDB), using the instrument carrier landing system (ICLS), and the automatic carrier landing system (ACLS) (not yet implemented). Navigation is primarily done with the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) format and the HUD.

Navigation HUD (General)

HSI Format

HSI Labels 1.png

The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) format is the primary interface with the airplane's navigation systems. The basic function of the HSI is a moving map with the airplane's position in a top-down display.

The HSI format can be invoked from the [SUPT] menu. It can also be invoked onto the AMPCD by pressing the Sensor Control switch aft. Furthermore, when the SA format is on any DDI or the MPCD, bumping the Sensor Control switch toward the SA with the TDC already assigned to it will swap the SA for the HSI format and vice-versa.

  1. Lubberline - The "lubberline" is a solid line that indicates the current aircraft heading.
  2. Ground Track Pointer - The diamond shape indicates the current aircraft ground track.
  3. Compass Rose - The compass rose is comprised of numbers and dots which indicate headings in ten degree increments. The numbers represent hundreds of degrees (e.g. 24=240°) Along the compass is a triangle indicating the bearing to the selected waypoint or tuned TACAN. These are differentiated by a circle inside the triangle for the waypoint and a "T" in the triangle for TACAN. A line (waypoint) and oval shape (TACAN) indicates the reciprocals of the triangles.
  4. Aircraft Symbol - This indicates the position of the aircraft itself. It is oriented toward the current heading.
  5. Aircraft True Airspeed
  6. Aircraft Ground Speed
  7. Range Scale - This is the radius of the display in nautical miles, except in DCTR mode where it is the distance from the bottom to the top of the display. The options are 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160nm; in DCTR mode, these values are doubled.
  8. Not yet implemented.
  9. DATA Sublevel
  10. Waypoint / TACAN Data Block - This block of information displays in the upper right corner for the selected waypoint and in the upper left for the selected TACAN. From top to bottom, it shows:
    1. Bearing/Distance to Waypoint/TACAN (for waypoint, horizontal distance; for TACAN, slant range)
    2. Dynamic ETA to Waypoint/TACAN (HH:MM:SS)
    3. Waypoint Name/TACAN ID
    4. Fuel Remaining at Waypoint/TACAN (when selected as steer-to point)
    5. Recommended Top of Descent (in nautical miles; distance from the waypoint/TACAN to begin a descent based on a 4° glideslope)
  11. Waypoint Steering - This selects the current waypoint as the steer-to point and displays navigational cues for the presently selected waypoint on the HUD.
  12. Waypoint Selection - This is the currently selected waypoint with an arrow above and below to cycle through the waypoints in the selected sequence.
  13. Waypoint Designate - Designates the currently selected waypoint as the air-to-ground designation (TGT) point. This is termed a NAV designation. It can be undesignated by pressing the "TGT" button on the HSI or the Undesignate button on the stick.
  14. Waypoint Sequence - Cycles the aircraft's three sequences of waypoints and toggles drawing a dashed courseline in-between them.
  15. Course and Heading Select - The selected course, in degrees, via the course select switch. A courseline will then be drawn through the current waypoint or TACAN the airplane is steering to (TCN/WYPT boxed); when this is done, a distance in nautical miles and "C" is displayed as a direct distance from the courseline. On the opposite side is the selected heading via the heading select switch, for use with the autopilot; the selected heading is displayed along the compass via two boxes. Holding either switch will allow the course/heading value to be entered via the UFC instead.
  16. Automatic Waypoint Sequencing - Toggles the auto waypoint function, which changes the current waypoint as the previous one is physically passed to the next one. Selecting this also activates the waypoint steering option.
  17. TIMEUFC - Brings up options on the UFC for time indications to display on the HUD and HSI. Selecting an option on the UFC will toggle its display. The last selection will display on the HUD, while on the HSI both ET or CD and ZTOD will display.
    1. SET: Allows for the IFEI date to be set via the UFC keypad.
    2. ET: Begins a count-up in MM:SS up to 59:59. Paused/unpaused via the ENT button on the UFC keypad.
    3. CD: Begins a countdown in MM:SS starting at 06:00 by default. Paused/unpaused via the ENT button on the UFC keypad. The default starting value of the countdown can be changed by selecting the CD option and then entering it via the keypad. The value cannot exceed 59:59.
    4. ZTOD: Displays the current zulu time (Universal Coordinated Time).
    5. LTOD: Sets the IFEI local time. Select "LTOD" and then enter the desired local time in 24 hour time in the format HH:MM:SS. This will change the minute and seconds for the zulu time as well. The LTOD cannot be displayed on the HUD and HSI like the ZTOD can.
  18. Not yet implemented.
  19. Not yet implemented.
  20. Not yet implemented.
  21. Mode
    1. MAP: toggles the chart overlay. This is only visible on the AMPCD.
    2. T UP: track up. The HSI will be oriented so that the aircraft's track (horizontal velocity across the ground) is always pointed up.
    3. N UP: north up. The HSI swill be oriented so that north is always up.
    4. DCTR: decenter. Places aircraft at the bottom of the HSI instead of the center and places the track up.
    5. SLEW: not yet implemented.
  22. Instrument Carrier Landing System - Displays localizer and glideslope indications for the instrument carrier landing system on the HUD. This can be selected simultaneously with TACAN or WYPT steering.
  23. TACAN Steering - Displays navigational cues for the tuned TACAN on the HUD. It cannot be selected simultaneously with the waypoint steering option.
  24. Position Reference - Selects aircraft position reference: inertial navigation system (INS), relative to the selected TACAN (TCN), the air data computer (ADC), or Global Positioning System (GPS).
  25. Not yet implemented.

DATA Sublevel

The DATA sublevel of the HSI provides numerous navigation-related options. It is split into multiple tabs, selectable at the top. Selecting "HSI" will return to the main format.

A/C

AC HSI Labels 2.png

The A/C tab on the DATA sublevel displays information regarding the aircraft itself and the inertial navigation system.

  1. Terrain Awareness System - This toggles TAWS verbal annunciations.
  2. Warning Altitudes - Selects Radar and barometric warning, or "soft," altitudes. Selecting either will allow for a value to be entered on the UFC. When either altitude is reached in a descent, "altitude, altitude" will sound.
  3. Not yet implemented.
  4. Not yet implemented.
  5. Not yet implemented.
  6. Not yet implemented.
  7. Not yet implemented.
  8. Not yet implemented.
  9. Magnetic / True North Selection - Selects between magnetic north and true north as the heading source for the aircraft.
  10. Coordinates Formatting - Changes latitude/longitude coordinate presentation throughout the HSI format: DCML will display it as degrees/minutes and SEC will display it as degrees/minutes/seconds.
  11. Selected Position Source
  12. Aircraft Positional Information - Current aircraft latitude and longitude and the wind speed, wind direction direction, and magnetic variation where the aircraft is.
  13. GPS Information - GPS horizontal and vertical error and the Zulu time according to the GPS.

WYPT

WYPT HSI Labels 1.png

The WYPT tab allows for detailed information about waypoints to be viewed and edited.

  1. Not yet implemented.
  2. Not yet implemented.
  3. Not yet implemented.
  4. Not yet implemented.
  5. Precise Coordinates - Toggles precise coordinate mode. When PRECISE is boxed, coordinates in the HSI format will show as 8 digits; otherwise, they will show as 6.
  6. Not yet implemented.
  7. SEQUFC - Brings up UFC options for the currently selected sequence:
    1. GSPD: enter the desired groundspeed in knots to be en route to the designated target waypoint (not to be confused with the waypoint designate/TGT function). This is used in conjunction with TOT. For waypoints in the sequence before it, the required ground speed will allow for the plane to be at this groundspeed en route to the target waypoint.
    2. TGT: Designate a waypoint number to be the target waypoint for the TOT function. It is important to note this operates entirely independently of the A/G designation.
    3. TOT: Designate a desired time on target in zulu time in the format HH:MM:SS. The HSI will then display a required groundspeed to reach the target at that time.
    4. INS: Insert waypoints to the currently selected sequence. To add one in between two current ones, enter the preceding waypoint and then the inbetween waypoint.
    5. DEL: Select a waypoint to delete from the sequence.
  8. A/A Waypoint - Designates the currently selected waypoint as the air-to-air waypoint or "bullseye". This is for communicating target locations and is used in other formats.
  9. Not yet implemented.
  10. Not yet implemented.
  11. UFC - Brings up UFC options for the currently selected waypoint:
    1. POSN: Enter desired waypoint location, first the latitude and then the longitude. This is entered in degrees/minutes/seconds or degrees/minutes, depending on the display setting in the A/C tab. Without precise coordinate mode, they are entered with all six digits at once. In the precise coordinate mode, the first four are entered, "ENTER" is pressed, and then the next four are entered.
    2. ELEV: Enter waypoint elevation. Option is given to enter in feet or meters.
    3. GRID: Not yet implemented.
    4. O/S: Not yet implemented.
  12. Waypoint position: north/east coordinates, Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) coordinates (not yet implemented), and the elevation in meters or feet (depending which it was entered as).
  13. Not yet implemented.
  14. Entered Time on Target (TOT)
  15. Entered Groundspeed to Target (GSPD)
  16. Waypoints in Sequence - The waypoints in the sequence, in order. A waypoint will be boxed if it is designated as the target for the TOT feature.

TCN

TCN HSI Labels 1.png

The TCN tab allows for information to be viewed about TACAN stations in the aircraft database.

  1. Not yet implemented.
  2. TACAN Database - Cycles TACANs in the database.
  3. TACAN Frequency - Frequency of the TACAN being viewed.
  4. TACAN Information - Latitude, longitude, and elevation of the TACAN, and magnetic variation at it.
  5. Not yet implemented.
  6. UFC - Allows for the coordinates/elevation/magvar to be manually edited on the UFC.

MDATA

Not yet implemented.














HUD Steering Modes

The HUD can operate in one of three steering modes:

  • Waypoint Steering - Steering cues are provided to the selected waypoint, markpoint, or offset.
  • TACAN Steering - Steering cues are provided to the selected TACAN station.
  • Target Steering - Steering cues are provided to the current A/G target designation.

Waypoint and TACAN steering are controlled via the WYPT and TCN options on the HSI format. Target steering is automatically entered whenever a designation exists and replaces the WYPT option on the HSI with a boxed TGT label.

HUD NAV Labels 1.png
  1. Distance to Steer Point - This is the distance in tenths of a nautical mile to the waypoint (or markpoint, etc), TACAN, or designation. After the distance is the type of steer-to point. For a waypoint, markpoint, or offset, a letter W, M, or O followed by its number is displayed. For a TACAN station, its three letter ID is displayed. For the A/G designation, TGT is displayed. The distance is slant range for a TACAN and distance over the ground for all others.
  2. Command Steering Cue - The command steering cue on the heading tape indicates the wind corrected heading toward the steer point. When steering to other than the designation, the command steering cue is a pipe symbol (as illustrated). When steering to the designation, the cue is a diamond.

HUD TOT Symbology

With a time on target (TOT) entered for a waypoint in the sequence via the SEQUFC option on the HSI DATA sublevel, an indication is provided under the airspeed window on the HUD to visualize the groundspeed required to meet the TOT specified.

HUD TOT indicator.jpg
  1. Target Speed Indicator - This line visually indicates the ground speed required to overfly the waypoint at the TOT specified.
  2. Required Groundspeed Cue - This caret indicates the current speed relative to the speed that would meet the TOT exactly (target speed). The symbol is aligned with the target speed indicator line to make time on target. When the caret is to the right of the line, the current speed is faster than the target speed; i.e. the aircraft will arrive earlier than the TOT. When the caret is to the left of the indicator, the current speed is lower than the target speed. The caret will only move when the groundspeed is ±30kts of the target speed.

Waypoints

The F/A-18C can store up to 60 arbitrarily defined INS-based waypoints in up to 3 sequences, which are series of waypoints. Waypoints are defined by a set of coordinates, displayed and enterable in both latitude/longitude and Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), and an elevation above (or below) sea level.

Waypoints are indicated by a circle with a dot in the middle.

Waypoints can be given their own 5-character name pre-flight (in the DCS mission editor), but cannot named in the aircraft. They are numbered sequentially from 0–59. Waypoint 0 is reserved for the initial position of the aircraft on startup.

TACAN

Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) is a military radio navigation system. A TACAN beacon allows for an aircraft to determine its bearing and range from it, and using this information can navigate. TACANs may be ground-based or be broadcasted by an airplane. TACAN channels have two bands, X and Y, and range from 1-126. It should be noted the frequencies 68X/Y and 69X/Y interfere with the Link-16 data network the Hornet uses.

The F/A-18C has a TACAN transmitter and receiver. The TACAN antenna itself is powered on the UFC via the TCN option. The ON/OFF button will toggle the TACAN power and an "ON" will be indicated in the scratchpad. In the scratchpad is the current TACAN frequency tuned to, which can be inputted via the keypad.

The UFC also provides the following options:

  • T/R: Transmit and receive. Gets bearing and range from the TACAN.
  • RCV: Receive. Gets bearing from the TACAN.
  • A/A: Air-to-air TACAN mode.
  • X: Tunes the selected frequency on the X band.
  • Y: Tunes the selected frequency on the Y band.

On the HSI, the TACAN station appears as a triangle, with a dot in the middle when it is being steered to.

ADF

Very high omnidirectional range (VOR) stations send out radio emissions which can be used to determine bearing to said VOR. While the Hornet does not have VOR-capable navigation radios, it can determine bearing to a VOR (or TACAN) via its automatic direction finder (ADF).

In the F/A-18, they can be tuned on the COMM1 or COMM2 radios. To do so, the frequency of the station is simply tuned to that radio and then the ADF switch on the UFC is set from OFF to COMM1/2. This will then display a circle on the HSI format's compass, indicating bearing to the station.

ICLS

For night and low visibility operations, aircraft carriers have an instrument carrier landing system (ICLS) to allow for instrument approaches to the carrier. ICLS provides horizontal and vertical guidance. The F/A-18 is equipped with ICLS.

To activate the airplane's ICLS antenna, the ILS button is selected on the UFC and then ON/OFF is used to toggle power to the system. "ON" is displayed on the scratchpad when it is on. Also on the scratchpad is the current ICLS frequency, which can be inputted via the keypad.

When ILS is selected on the HSI, two bars, one horizontal and one vertical, appear near the velocity vector on the HUD. These indicate vertical and horizontal deviation from the optimal glideslope (3°) and course to the deck. When they are both aligned with the velocity vector (making a "+"), the aircraft is on course.

ACLS

Not yet implemented.

FPAS Format

FPAS Labels 1.png

The F/A-18C has the capability to calculate flight performance to advise the pilot of optimal speeds, altitudes, and other information. This information is accessed by the FPAS format on the SUPT menu.

  1. Climb Mode - When this option is selected, above the HUD airspeed indication will display the optimal speed in indicated knots to climb at.
  2. Home Waypoint - A waypoint can be selected as the "home" waypoint. When the FPAS calculates there will be 2,000lbs of fuel left when reaching the home waypoint if the plane were to turn toward it at that moment, then the "HOME FUEL" caution will display.
  3. Optimum Range and Endurance - This is the optimum barometric altitude and Mach number at said altitude to fly to travel as far as possible (range) or as long as possible (endurance). "TO 2,000LBS" displays the range in nautical miles left (range) and the time in HH:MM (endurance) until the aircraft will reach 2,000lbs of fuel. When below 2,500lbs, it will become "TO 0LBS".
  4. Current Range and Endurance - The upper "TO 2,000LBS", at the current flight parameters, displays the range in nautical miles (range) and time in HH:MM (endurance) until the fuel reaches 2,000lbs. Below 2,500lbs, this becomes "TO 0LBS". Below is the "BEST MACH" and lower "TO 2,000LBS/0LBS" indications. This shows the best Mach number to fly at the current altitude to obtain the best range or endurance. The lower "TO 2,000/0LBS" indication displays the range/endurance information if the airplane flew at the "BEST MACH" speeds.
  5. WYPT/TCN Information "NAV TO" displays the TACAN station or waypoint being steered to. "TIME" is the time remaining to reach the waypoint when heading straight at it, in the format HH:MM:SS. "FUEL REMAIN" is the calculated fuel that will remain when reaching that waypoint. "LB/NM" is the current amount of pounds of fuel being burned per nautical mile (this is always showed).

The F/A-18C is equipped with various defensive systems:

  • ALE-47 Countermeasure Dispensing System (CMDS) - Allows for the release of chaff, flares, and decoys to spoof enemy Radar- and infrared-based weapon tracking systems
  • AN/ALQ-165 Airborne Self Protection Jammer (ASPJ) - Jams enemy aircraft and weapon radars.
  • AN/ALR-67 Radar Warning Reciever (RWR) - Detects and identifies enemy Radar emitters and then displays bearing and identification information to the pilot. It can detect missiles and missile launches under certain circumstances.

AN/ALR-67 RWR

The AN/ALR-67 Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) provides the Hornet the ability to detect radars on both aircraft and active Radar homing missiles via the radio/microwave radiation they emit.

Cockpit Systems

Behind the control stick is a row of five pushbuttons to control the RWR. From right to left, the options are:

  1. Toggles power to the RWR.
  2. Limits the display to the 6 highest priority emitters.
  3. Not yet implemented.
  4. Offsets RWR emitters so the bearing is no longer accurate but they are spaced out so they can be read easier.
  5. Runs the RWR's built in test (BIT). In the event of a failure, it will display a red "FAIL".

There are also three knobs around these buttons. "AUDIO" is intentionally not functional. "DMR" controls the brightness of the pushbutton backlights. DIS TYPE sets the display priority for certain emitter types: airborne intercept (I), anti aircraft artillery (A), unknown (U), and friendly (F).

EW Format

RWR EW Format Labels 1.png

The Early Warning (EW) Format is the primary interface with the RWR.

  1. AN/ALR-67 Status - "OFF" indicates no power and "RCV" means it is on and receiving.
  2. RWR Display - The EW format provides a top-down display with ticks around it in half-hour clock directions (the top tick is always 12 o'clock). A representation of the aircraft is placed in the center. Emitters are displayed as NATO standard alphabetical and/or numerical identifiers for various emitter types. There are three 'bands' of the display:
    1. Along the outermost ring is the "non-lethal" band, which is emitters determined not to be lethal or critical.
    2. Along the outside of the next ring is the "lethal" band, which is emitters determined to be likely lethal threats.
    3. Along the inside of the next ring is the "critical" band, which is emitters determined to be likely critical threats.
  3. Display Settings - Displays the settings selected via the physical DIS TYPE knob and pushbuttons.
  4. HUD Emitter Bearings - Toggles HUD emitter indications. Emitters on the HMD must be toggled via the HMD Format instead.

Emitters will additionally have special symbology indicating their type:

  • Half-circle below: emitter is tracking
  • Triangle above: hostile aircraft
  • Half-circle above: friendly aircraft
  • Staple above: unknown aircraft
  • Triangle and rectangle without a bottom: surface to air missile (SAM)
  • Line above with two small lines pointing up: anti aircraft artillery (AAA)
  • Line below: sea-based

If an emitter is guiding a missile at the aircraft, they will flash. If they are also in the critical band, a line will stem out of them to their bearing.

HUD EW Indications

When selected on the EW format, a maximum of 6 emitters (the most prioritized) and their bearing will be displayed on the HUD/HMD in the same top-down format.

  • Non-lethal: Solid line
  • Lethal: Dashed line
  • Critical: Solid line

The lethal line is longer than the non-critical line and the critical line is longer than the lethal line. The HUD does not show emitter classification symbology except the half-circle underneath to indicate tracking and the line underneath to indicate a sea-based emitter.

The maximum number of emitters on the HUD is reduced further when both a certain A/A weapon is selected and the Radar is in Single Target Track. The HMD is unaffected.

  • AIM-7: 2 emitters
  • AIM-9: 1 emitter
  • Gun: 3 emitters (when in GACQ or STT)

When in HUD REJ 1, an additional 2 emitters will be added (but still to a maximum of 6). In REJ 2, 6 emitters will always be shown.

Standby RWR Indicator

A standby RWR indicator in the standby instrument cluster under the right DDI is an analog RWR display. It displays the same data as the EW Format, except additional indications will show as a single letter for the DIS KNOB and pushbutton display settings. A "B" is displayed in the case of a failure and a "T" is displayed in the case of a thermal overheat of the RWR or countermeasures computer. Emitter category symbols are also not shown on this display.

RWR Annunciator Panel

Above the right DDI is a set of lights indicating what type of emitters is in the lethal or critical band: surface to air missile (SAM), anti aircraft artillery (AAA), airborne intercept (AI), and continuous wave Radar (CW).

Audio Tones

Accompanying the RWR are various audio feedback tones:

  • Single Beep: A new ground- or sea-based emitter has been detected.
  • Double Beep: A new airborne emitter has been detected.
  • Repeating Beep: An emitter is tracking.
  • Faster Repeating Beep: An emitter is guiding a missile or the emitter itself is a missile.

On the left console audio panel, the RWR knob will control the volume of the RWR tones.

Emitter Identifiers

Type RWR ID Type RWR ID Type RWR ID
U Unknown M Active Radar-homing missile S Search Radar
T Air traffic control Radar 3 SA-3 "Goa" 6 SA-6 "Gainful"
8 SA-8 "Gecko" 10 SA-10 "Grumble" 11 SA-11 "Gadfly"
11 F-111 Aardvark 12 SA-12 "Gladiator" 13 SA-13 "Gopher"
13 C-130 Hercules 14 F-14 Tomcat 15 F-15 Eagle
15 SA-15 "Gauntlet" 16 F-16 Fighting Falcon 17 C-17 Globemaster III
18 F/A-18 Hornet 19 MiG-19 "Farmer" 21 MiG-21 "Fishbed"
22 Tu-22 "Blinder" 23 MiG-23 "Flogger" 24 Su-24 "Fencer"
25 MiG-25 "Foxbat" 29 MiG-29 "Fulcrum" 29 Su-27 "Flanker"
29 Su-33 "Flanker-D" 30 Su-30 "Flanker-C" 31 MiG-31 "Foxhound"
34 Su-34 "Fullback" 39 Su-25M "Frogfoot" 40 Spruance-class destroyer
48 Nimitz-class carrier 49 Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate 52 B-52 Stratofortress
76 IL-76 "Candid" 78 IL-78 "Midas" AN AN-26B "Curl"
AN AN-30M "Clank" B1 B-1 Lancer BE Tu-95 "Bear"
BE Tu-142 "Bear F/J" BF Tu-22 "Backfire" BJ Tu-160 "Blackjack"
E2 E-2 Hawkeye E3 E-3 Sentry F4 F-4 Phantom
F-5 F-5 Tiger HX Ka-27 "Helix" KC KC-135 Stratotanker
KJ KJ-2000 "Mainring" M2 Mirage 2000 S3 S-3 Viking
SH SH-60 Seahawk HK MIM-23 Hawk PT MIM-104 Patriot

ALE-47 CMDS

The ALE-47 Countermeasure Dispense System (CMDS) controls the release of the F/A-18's chaff, flares, and decoys. It is configured via the Early Warning (EW) Format.

Cockpit Controls

Located below the AMPCD is the dispenser switch, which controls power to the ALE-47. It has three positions:

  • OFF: The ALE-47 is off.
  • ON: The ALE-47 is powered on. It runs a built in test (BIT) before going to standby mode.
  • BYPASS: The ALE-47 is powered on and put into bypass mode, allowing for direct countermeasure control. In bypass mode, the dispense switch on the throttle will release a single chaff when pushed forward and a single flare when pushed aft.

Additionally there is the "ECM JETT" button, which will dispense all flares as quickly as possible in an emergency. This is not intended for actual use as a countermeasure dispense option, but to reduce the risk of fire when the aircraft is damaged.

On the left wall there is a red "DISP" button, which will release all countermeasures over time. It is slower than the ECM JETT button and can be effective as a countermeasure option.

ALE-47 EW Format Options

ALE47 EW Format Labels 1.png

The ALE-47 is primarily manipulated via the Early Warning (EW) format. These options are only displayed when the ALE-47 option is boxed, except the mode option.

  1. ALE-47 Status - When the ALE-47 is off, this is crossed out and displays "OFF" below. When it is running its BIT, it will display "SF TEST" and then "PBIT GO" or "NO GO" depending on the result. When it is on and not running its BIT, it will display its mode: STBY, MAN and the current profile, S/A, or AUTO. When the ALE-47 is in bypass mode, a single line will run through the ALE-47 option. Boxing the ALE-47 option brings up all related options on the format.
  2. Chaff and Flare Count - Only displayed when the dispense switch is ON.
  3. Decoy Count - Only displayed when the dispense switch is ON.
  4. ARM Sublevel - Displays the ARM sublevel, allowing for the customization of the five countermeasure profiles. Allows for flare, chaff, O1, and O2 count, and number of times to repeat and interval in seconds to do so. Pressing the "SAVE" option is required.
  5. Step - Cycles the selected manual mode profile.
  6. Mode - Cycles the ALE-47 mode.

Modes

The ALE-47 has multiple modes of countermeasure dispensing:

  • STBY: Standby mode. The system is powered on but will dispense no countermeasures.
  • MAN: Manual profile mode. Dispenser switch on the throttle aft will activate the selected profile. Forward will activate profile 5.
  • S/A: Not yet implemented.
  • AUTO: Not yet implemented.

Saving ALE-47 Profiles

Countermeasure profiles can be configured and then saved so that they are default whenever starting the DCS F/A-18.

Editing Default Profiles

Please note that you can also edit your countermeasures outside of the game; normally if you close the game down you lose the editing to your countermeasure profiles that you have done in game. If you find you have a particular setup that you would like to keep (forever), rather than the default setup that comes in the F18, you can edit the .lua file and change the defaults to suit your preference. For example, we can tone down the amount of countermeasures used, so that we have more time we can use the countermeasure profile before you run out of flares / chaff (but it could make the profile overall less useful).

To edit a .lua file we are first going to need an adequate text editor; although you may be familiar with using notepad, I would instead recommend installing and using notepad++. The reason for using notepad++ is that the normal notepad does not respect the original file structure (so basically, newlines / enters as well as spacing) in some cases, and as such the file may become unusable if you try to edit and save the file this way. Notepad++ instead keeps the original file structure intact.

The file we wish to edit is the CMDS_ALE47.lua file; but before you start editing it please make a backup of it first. This file can be found in the path

(\Eagle Dynamics\DCS World OpenBeta ) \Mods\aircraft\FA-18C\Cockpit\Scripts\TEWS\device

Once you have made a backup file of the original .lua file, we can start editing it as we see fit. Please note that we do not want to edit anything besides the numbers, as editing anything else the file unusable. Technically, you should be able to rename the comments (ie the text following the double hyphens -- Default manual presets), but I would simply refrain from doing so and only edit the actual profile.

The profiles we are interested in (potentially) editing are manual profiles 1 through 6 (you could edit the auto presets as well, but I find it less useful). Please note that the following profiles can be accessed directly in the cockpit correspond to the following:

(manual) Program 1 is CMS aft (Countermeasures aft). (manual) Program 5 is CMS forward (Countermeasures forward). (manual) Program 6 is DISP button (Big Friendly Dispenser button on the left side of the cockpit).

Now onto the actual formatting of a countermeasure profile; note that they all function the same, but they all work for different profile. Let's take manual profile 1 as an example:

-- MAN 1 programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1] = {} programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1]["chaff"] = 1 programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1]["flare"] = 1 programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1]["intv"] = 1.0 programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1]["cycle"] = 10

The ProgramNames.MAN_1 refers to the fact this is the first manual profile (ProgramNames.MAN_2 being the second manual profile, and ProgramNames.AUTO_1 being the first auto profile; though again we probably do not want to edit those).

The chaff and flare values refer to how much flare and chaff is dispensed, but this is the amount dispensed per cycle and not the total amount dispensed. For our example (manual profile 1) we have 1 flare and 1 chaff dispensed per cycle, but we have a total of 10 cycles (cycle = 10). This means that the profile runs for 10 cycles total, during each cycle dispensing 1 chaff and 1 flare (thus expending a grand total of 10 chaff and 10 flares). The interval (intv) value is the time delay in seconds between each cycle; as in our example profile it is set to 1 (1.0), we have a profile that runs for 10 seconds, each second expending a chaff and a flare.

Overall that seems rather wasteful to me, so lets come up with a more sensible and conservative profile (but perhaps less effective) so that we can enjoy our countermeasures a bit longer:

-- MAN 1 programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1] = {} programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1]["chaff"] = 0 programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1]["flare"] = 1 programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1]["intv"] = 0.8 programs[ProgramNames.MAN_1]["cycle"] = 5

As you may have noticed nearly all manual profiles expend both chaff and flare at the same time, which I absolutely hate: you are almost never in the situation where you are being engaged by both Radar-guided missiles and infrared seeking missiles, so I prefer to split my countermeasure profiles accordingly. In my revised profile I run the profile for 4 seconds total: each cycle lasts 0.8 seconds, and during a cycle I only dispense a singular flare.

Saving Edited Profiles

Now, our last thing we have to realise is that although this profile is saved from deletion if we open and close our game (or hop into a brand new F-18), it will be deleted once DCS updates. However, we can save it from being deleted, by making it into a mod (modification)! To do this we will need yet another tool, called OVGME: this is a tool that many people who wish to mod their game use to, well, mod their game.

The installation of OVGME is largely self-guiding (but there will be tutorials for it), but the gist is that we end up with a profile folder and a mod folder for DCS. The profile tells OVGME which game we wish to mod, where to find this game and where the folder is that we are going to store our mods in. The mod folder is where we store our mods that we wish to use.

So if we wish to save our edited countermeasures profile, all we have to do is make a new mod for it! In the OVGME DCS mods folder you have made, we wish to recreate the folder structure pointing to our CMDS_ALE47.lua file. This has to be done with the DCS World (Openbeta) folder as our begin folder (or root); all these folders will be empty, except for the last folder, as in there we will place our edited CMDS_ALE47.lua file.

The first folder we will make in the DCS mod folder is the mod folder itself, so I recommend naming it something like "Nanne118's totally awesome countermeasure mod for the F18" or something equally easy to remember. Now all we do is replicate the folder structure until we get to the CMDS_ALE47.lua file location: we do not have to copy in every file, as OVGME is smart enough to only replace the actual files in the mod. Equally you do not want to just copy over the existing folder structure from the DCS World install location, as you will be copying over all the files as well. You could delete all the files, but that would be a whole lot more work.

The folder structure we want to make, with all empty folders, is:

\Mods\aircraft\FA-18C\Cockpit\Scripts\TEWS\device

In the device folder we then paste our modified CMDS_ALE47.lua folder, so that we can get OVGME to overwrite it. The only thing we then have to change is that we have to enable our mod within OVGME itself, so start up the OVMGE.EXE, click the mod, and enable the selected mod.

AN/ALQ-165 ASPJ

Section WIP.


The Hornet's AN/APG-73 Radar system provides the ability to paint a picture of the ground in various processing modes, make ground designations, and can also initiate a track (a traditional 'lock') on a surface hit. This section will cover the air-to-ground capabilities of the Radar. The A/G Radar is accessed via the Radar/Attack (RDR ATTK) in the NAV and A/G master modes with the SURF (Surface) option. Entering A/G master mode automatically brings up the Attack format in Surface (A/G) mode. A/G is the default mode when invoking the Attack format in NAV or A/G, although the A/A Radar can still be selected. In A/A master mode, the A/G Radar is unavailable.

The Radar itself is controlled by a knob on the right console. It has 4 positions:

  • OFF: The Radar is powered off.
  • STBY: The Radar is powered on but not scanning.
  • OPR: The Radar is powered on and scanning, and will power off in the event of a failsafe being triggered.
  • PULL EMERG: The Radar is powered on and scanning, and will not power off for any reason except physical failure.

When there is weight on wheels (WoW), the Radar will not scan, regardless of knob position.

A/G RDR ATTK Format

AG ATTK Labels 2.png

The A/G Attack format is the primary interface with the ground Radar.

The format contains various options and the Radar display itself, termed the "tactical region." The tactical region takes the actual, conical shape of the Radar scan without augmentation. It is set to a "ground-track up" orientation. The tactical region consists of three vertical lines each indicating 30° (120° total) and four range arcs each indicating 1/4 of the current maximum range.

An A/G Target can be created by depressing the TDC cursor over the desired location in the tactical region. A slewable azimuth line and a range arc is displayed as long as the TDC is depressed. The intersection of the arc and the line is where the designation will be created or moved upon releasing the TDC.

  1. Operating Mode - Current operating mode of the Radar. This option serves as a toggle through each mode.
  2. Radar Status - Current status of the Radar.
  3. Beam Width - Toggles the beam width between narrow (PENCIL) and wide (FAN). FAN will result in a broader/quicker scan but less defined image.
  4. Maximum Range - Current maximum range from the aircraft displayed.
  5. Range Scale - Sets the range scale. If an A/G TGT exists, the arrows are removed and the Radar automatically adjusts the scale to keep the TGT within 45%-93% (vertically) of the tactical region. The range scale can also be set by slewing the cursor in and out of the bottom or top center of the tactical region within 0.8 seconds.
  6. Minimum Range - Current minimum range (from the aircraft) displayed in the tactical region.
  7. Freeze - Freezes the current output image. The Radar continues to scan and will update when this option is unboxed.
  8. Reset - Resets the antenna elevation and gain to the optimal settings.
  9. Silent - Stops the Radar from scanning and invokes the SIL sublevel.
  10. Radar Channel - Not yet implemented.
  11. Azimuth - Sets current scan azimuth, cycling through 120°, 20°, 45°, and 90°.
  12. Air-to-Air Radar - Invokes the A/A Attack format.
  13. ECCM - Not yet implemented.
  14. TDC Cursor - TDC cursor used for making an A/G TGT designation, tracking, and setting EXP search areas.
  15. Velocity Vector / Horizon Line - Horizon line and caged velocity vector.
  16. Airspeed / Mach
  17. Aircraft Altitude - This altitude is presented the same as on the HUD, in line with barometric vs. Radar altimeter logic.
  18. Current Gain
  19. Antenna Elevation - The caret indication shows the elevation of the Radar antenna relative to the horizon, controlled with the Antenna Elevation Wheel on the throttle. The antenna can be moved 60° up or down; the tick marks along the scale each indicate 10°. The horizontal line indicates the optimal elevation given the current range scale and aircraft altitude. The antenna elevation is initialized at this optimal line when the A/G Attack format is entered.

Not shown is the A/G Target indication. This is an "+" symbol, aligned to the aircraft itself, that indicates the A/G Target location.

DATA Sublevel

AG ATTK DATA Labels 1.png
  1. Declutter - Removes airspeed/Mach, horizon line/velocity vector, and altitude indications.
  2. Gain - Sets the Radar gain.

SIL Sublevel

Section WIP.




















Real-Beam Ground Map (MAP)

The Real-Beam Ground Map (MAP) mode provides a "raw" output of the environment as scanned by the Radar. It can display terrain out to 160nm, though the higher resolution Expand (EXP) function is only available to 40nm. MAP is a very low-resolution display, however a concentrated area can be enhanced in detail with the Expand (EXP) function.

Expand (EXP)

AG Radar EXP Labels 1.png
  1. EXP Options - Available in regular MAP mode and from any EXP mode, these options toggle the Expand modes.
  2. Angle-Off-Track - The angle left or right from the ground track to the center of the EXP scan.
  3. MAP Mode - This option, which otherwise toggles through the various A/G Radar modes, returns to regular MAP mode when already in EXP.
  4. Fast Scan - Boxing the FAST scan option doubles the Radar's rate of scan for a reduction of approximately half the scan quality.

There are three Expand (EXP) levels available in MAP mode to provide a refined scan of a particular area. These are termed Doppler Beam-Sharped (DBS) modes and can provide extremely improved resolution from normal MAP. All EXP modes have a maximum range (the farthest point displayed in the given EXP mode) of 40nm.

In EXP, an A/G Target designation can be made (or moved) by holding the TDC. This will display a slewable cross shape. Upon releasing the TDC, the Target designation will be made at the center of the cross and the EXP scan will move to center on the designation.

It should be noted that the A/G Radar requires objects to not be directly head-on with its ground track to create a Doppler shift and actually output an image. This effect is prevalent while in EXP. Areas without sufficient Doppler shift will be drawn blank.

When no A/G TGT exists, selecting any Expand mode from the main MAP format (or a preceding EXP level, e.g. EXP2 from EXP1) will display a "corral cursor", indicating the area the EXP mode will cover once entered. This corral can then be slewed by holding the TDC down and slewing. Releasing the TDC will enter that EXP mode. Selecting a mode higher than the current one (e.g. EXP1 from EXP2), the mode is immediately entered centered on the previous center.

When an A/G TGT exists, selecting any Expand mode immediately enters that mode centered on the TGT designation.

When the range to the center of the EXP2 or EXP3 scan is less than 3nm, the Radar automatically reverts to normal MAP mode.

  • EXP1 - EXP1 is also called "DBS Sector" and is the lowest resolution EXP. The azimuth in EXP1 is fixed to 45° and no range scale selection is available. If an A/G Target is designated, the EXP1 display is stabilized to the designation (ground track up). Otherwise, it snowplows as in the regular MAP mode.
  • EXP2 - EXP2 is a medium resolution mode with a fixed 12.6° azimuth. It is known as "DBS Patch". EXP2 is always stabilized to the center of its scan, regardless of whether an A/G Target exists.
  • EXP3 - EXP3 is considered a Synthetic Aperture Radar mode and is the highest possible resolution the Radar is capable of. It provides a fixed view of 1.2x1.2nm and is always stabilized to the center. Since EXP3 is based on a set size and EXP2 (and 1) are based on azimuth angle, EXP2 will actually provide a higher resolution display below a range of ~6nm.

Sea Surface Search (SEA)

Not yet implemented.

Ground Moving Target (GMT)

Not yet implemented.

Terrain Avoidance (TA)

Not yet implemented.

Air-to-Ground Ranging (AGR)

Air-to-Ground Ranging (AGR) is a function of the A/G Radar used to determine and display the range to either the A/G Target designation or Continuously Computed Impact Point (CCIP) weapons reticle for release calculation.

AGR is the primary method of ranging calculation for CCIP reticles, unless a tracking TGT designation exists from another sensor, in which case the reticle is driven by the TGT location and thereby by whatever sensor is providing the designation (e.g. FLIR track, Radar track). This is not applicable for conventional or laser guided bombs when a TGT is designated since only AUTO release is available.

AGR is commanded by pressing the Sensor Control Switch forward with or without the TDC already assigned to the HUD. AGR mode is indicated by an AGR legend on the HUD. AGR is exited by pressing the Undesignate button or assigning TDC to the Attack format. The Radar will return to the previous search mode.

The AGR look-point is one of the following:

  • TDC assigned to HUD - One of the following reticles, otherwise velocity vector
    • (Gun) CCIP reticle
    • (Rockets) CCIP reticle
    • (Conventional/LGBs) CCIP impact cross
  • TDC assigned to FLIR - FLIR reticle

The F/A-18C Hornet is equipped with the AN/APG-73 pulse-Doppler Radar which provides multiple modes of operation for air-to-air (A/A) target detection, acquisition, and engagement. The Hornet's A/A avionics suite allows for efficient single crew manipulation of the Radar in both beyond visual range (BVR) battle and within visual range (WVR) dogfight environments.

The A/A systems integrate onboard Radar and offboard Datalink information to provide the pilot a sensor-fuzed Multi-Source Integration (MSI) picture. The MSI picture as well as the manipulation of the Radar as a sensor is provided on the primary three A/A formats:

  • Radar/Attack Format - The Attack format is a top-down, B-scope view of the attack region, which is the 140° area in front of the aircraft reachable by the Radar gimbal limits. The Attack format allows for manipulation of all Radar functions such as operating modes and scan settings. Furthermore, it is the only format that displays the raw returns of the Radar ("hits") instead of only MSI trackfiles. The Attack format also provides A/A weapon cuing, allowing the pilot to stay "heads down" in a beyond visual range engagement.
  • Azimuth/Elevation (Az/El) Format - The Az/El format provides a forward-looking boresight projection of MSI trackfiles. It covers the attack region in azimuth (±70°) and up to ±70° in elevation. Radar scan centering and acquisition is available from the Az/El format. The Az/El is also the primary interface for cuing the Combined Interrogator/Transponder (CIT) to do IFF interrogations. Furthermore, the FLIR can be pointed via the Az/El format and be slaved to any trackfile.
  • Situation Awareness (SA) Format - The SA format provides a top-down display of MSI trackfiles around the aircraft. In particular, this allows the pilot to see MSI Datalink trackfiles behind the aircraft the view of the Attack and Az/El formats. It doubles as a navigation display with many of the same options as the HSI format. The SA displays expanded trackfile information, though is not a direct interface with any Radar functions.

The Radar itself is controlled by a knob on the right console. This is the only Radar control not done through the avionic system. It has 4 positions:

  • OFF: The Radar is powered off.
  • STBY: The Radar is powered on but not scanning.
  • OPR: The Radar is powered on and scanning, and will power off in the event of a failsafe being triggered.
  • PULL EMERG: The Radar is powered on and scanning, and will not power off for any reason except physical failure.

When there is weight on wheels (WoW), the Radar will not scan, regardless of knob position.

MSI Trackfiles

Multi-Source Integration (MSI) trackfiles, or just "trackfiles" or "tracks", are singular airborne targets with information associated to them by the computer, such as position, kinematics, and identification. MSI combines sensor data inputted by the onboard Radar and offboard Datalink to present one sensor-fused picture.

MSI trackfiles contributed to by the ownship Radar are termed Radar trackfiles. MSI tracks contributed to by Datalink (radars from other aircraft and units) are termed Datalink trackfiles. When a Radar and Datalink trackfile represent the same target, they are fused into a single trackfile, hence Multi-Source Integration (MSI).

A Radar trackfile is contrasted to a raw Radar "hit", which is a fixed position at which the Radar has observed a target. Multiple Radar hits recognized by the computer to really be the same aircraft in motion form Radar trackfiles.

The Radar maintains of 10 trackfiles when in RWS or TWS mode. The target in STT is also maintained as a trackfile. No trackfiles are maintained in the ACM modes or VS. The limit is coincident with the number of AMRAAM missiles the F/A-18 can carry, permitting simultaneous attack against up to 10 different targets.

A maximum of 16 Datalink trackfiles is supported. These may also be correlated to Radar trackfiles and appear as one. Datalink tracks are transmitted through the Link 16 network, specifically through either the Fighter-to-Fighter (F/F), Surveillance (SURV), or Precise Participant Location and Identification (PPLI) network groups. F/F and SURV provide trackfile data from radars of other fighter and airborne warning and control system (AWACS)-type aircraft. SURV also includes some ground- and sea-based radars. The principle difference is that F/F sensors usually provide much higher refresh rates. PPLI transmits the broadcasting friendly aircraft itself as a trackfile.

MSI trackfiles are usually displayed as symbols called HAFUs on the Radar/Attack, Azimuth/Elevation, and Situation Awareness formats. A unique scenario occurs on the Attack format in that it also displays raw Radar hits and it may in, certain modes, even hide HAFUs associated with such hits even if a trackfile does exist for it. Regardless, on the Az/El and SA formats, all trackfiles are always displayed, with no raw hits.

The MSI trackfiles designated by the pilot as the Launch & Steering target or Secondary Designated Target are displayed on the HUD and HMD. Furthermore, a configurable array of A/A MSI tracks are always displayed on the HMD regardless of designation.

Based on last-known velocity and speed parameters, the Radar continuously extrapolates the trackfile's current position. This provides the pilot a reasonable representation of where the target may be in between Radar sweeps.

A larger scan volume results in individual trackfiles having lower update rates and so any maneuvering in between extrapolations is exacerbated the larger the scan volume is. For example, if a target makes a turn or significantly decelerates or accelerates, then the trackfile will appear to be going in its last known trend and then "jump" at the next refresh. A smaller scan volume makes these jumps less pronounced as there is less time for the target to maneuver between refreshes.

Note that raw Radar hits (green bricks) are not extrapolated. Rather, they remain fixed at a single position in space.

Trackfile Memory

Not yet implemented.

Trackfile Rank and Priority

Angle Only Trackfiles

Radar hits determined to have an invalid range are declared angle only trackfiles (AOTs). AOTs are displayed in the AOT zone or "dugout" area on the Attack format and outside the compass rose on the SA format. AOTs with a valid elevation angle are displayed normally on the Az/El format. If only azimuth is known, they are also displayed in the Az/El dugout. Angle only raw hit "bricks" will never be displayed.

An AOT is represented by a regular HAFU symbol without an aspect pointer. The center symbol is a letter A. A letter J to the left indicates that jamming is detected. An F to the right indicates the FLIR line of sight is correlated to that AOT.

When the Radar is in STT and the L&S is an angle only trackfile, a RDR AOT cue is displayed at the center of the Attack format. On the HUD the target designator box and, if applicable, the Allowable Steering Error (ASE) and steering dot are still displayed. However, there are no Normalized In-Range Display (NIRD) cues.

AOTs are Radar-only trackfiles as they inherently cannot be correlated to Datalink trackfiles without range from ownship. As such, AOTs are not transmitted as Datalink contributors.

Trackfile Designation

Any onboard Radar trackfile can be designated as a target by the pilot to provide attack cuing and define the target for A/A weapons.

The Launch & Steering (L&S) trackfile is the primary pilot-designated target. The L&S designation is critical to the A/A weapon systems; refer to A/A Weapons for details. The L&S trackfile is indicated by a star in the middle of its HAFU symbol.

On the Attack, Az/El, and SA formats, the L&S target HAFU always has Mach and altitude numbers to the left and right. When an A/A missile is selected, a Launch Zone is also displayed on the Attack format to indicate the firing envelope against the L&S.

On the HUD and HMD, the line of sight to the L&S target is indicated by a target designator (TD) box, and its range and closure rate (Vc) are also displayed. Additional attack cuing is also present on the HUD/HMD when an A/A weapon is selected.

The L&S is incorporated into many functions detailed in the appropriate sections. For example, the L&S can be quickly acquired into STT by the Radar by bumping the Sensor Control switch toward the Attack format when no target is under the cursor (refer to Automatic Acquisition).

A Secondary Designated Target (DT2) can be designated once an L&S exists. It is indicated by a diamond in the center of its HAFU. Like the L&S, its Mach and altitude is displayed in addition to missile Launch Zones. A target designator "X" symbol is displayed on the HUD/HMD to indicate the line of sight to the DT2, but no additional HUD/HMD cuing is provided for the DT2 like there is for the L&S.

The main purpose of the DT2 is to be able to easily swap another trackfile of interest in as the L&S. Pressing the Undesignate button swaps the L&S and DT2 designations. However, this can be detrimental if more than two targets are desired for attack because the Undesignate button will no longer step the L&S designation through the trackfiles (refer to Designation via Undesignate Button). For this reason, designating a DT2 may not always be advantageous.

Designation via Cursor

The cursor on the Attack or Az/El format can be used to directly designate any Radar trackfile. Designation is done by placing the cursor over a HAFU and depressing the TDC. The designation applied behaves as follows:

When no L&S exists, the trackfile under the cursor will be designated as the L&S. Note that if the TDC is depressed when the cursor is over the L&S itself, the Radar acquires it into STT.

When an L&S already exists, designating any other trackfile will make that trackfile the DT2. This undesignates the old DT2 if one existed. Designating the DT2 itself will make the DT2 the L&S and undesignate the old L&S. The old L&S does not become the DT2.

Note that depressing the TDC with the cursor over a raw Radar hit symbol with no HAFU displayed will instead enter STT on that hit (refer to Manual Acquisition). This scenario will occur on the Attack format only in RWS with the LTWS option deselected or in VS. This can be confusing in RWS since a trackfile usually does exist for the hit, but with LTWS deselected a HAFU is typically not displayed for it and so the associated trackfile cannot be designated with the cursor.

Designation via Undesignate Button

The Undesignate button can be used to designate trackfiles whenever the TDC is assigned to the Attack or Az/El format. This is the quickest way of designating trackfiles since the cursor does not have to be moved to them. Note when in the Spotlight or SCAN RAID modes, the Undesignate button will instead exit those modes. However, it remains functional in the Expanded (EXP) TWS format.

When no L&S exists, the Undesignate button will designate the priority 1 trackfile as the L&S.

Once an L&S exists, but there is no DT2, the Undesignate button will step the L&S designation through each trackfile by rank when pressed in short intervals. If 4 seconds or more has elapsed since the last actuation, the rank 1 trackfile is designated as the L&S. If the rank 1 is the L&S, then the Undesignate button steps the L&S designation to the rank 2 track. This logic allows the pilot to quickly designate the highest threat trackfile when an L&S designation already exists without stepping through all lower threat trackfiles.

If a DT2 is also designated (which can only be done using the cursor), the Undesignate button instead swaps the L&S and DT2 designations. This function can be useful for a two target attack. However, it disables the ability to quickly step the L&S. To get back into an L&S and no DT2 scenario quickly, the DT2 can be designated with the cursor which will make it the L&S and remove the DT2 designation entirely.

Note that in RWS mode, on the Attack format, the Undesignate button will step the L&S designation through all trackfiles including those intentionally hidden due to the display logic for RWS. However, once a trackfile is designated it will be displayed if it was not already.

Designation via Acquisition

When a trackfile is acquired by the Radar into STT by any method, it is made the L&S if not already. This can happen in some scenarios, e.g. using Fast Acquisition. It can also happen when acquiring a target with an ACM mode, as no trackfile exists prior to acquisition; as such the L&S designation is applied simultaneously as the trackfile is created and the Radar enters STT from the ACM mode.

Undesignation

The L&S and DT2 are undesignated using the RSET pushbutton on the Attack or Az/El formats. The RSET option removes both L&S and DT2 designations, except when the Radar is in STT, the L&S cannot be undesignated. Note that the RSET option performs other functions as well, which are different depending on whether the Az/El or Attack format RSET option is used.

Additionally, note that the Undesignate button itself does not undesignate the L&S or DT2, but rather either designates the L&S or swaps the L&S/DT2; refer to Designation via Undesignate Button. There is no direct HOTAS command to undesignate a track, however the RSET option is selectable via the cursor.

If the L&S trackfile is deleted, the DT2 is designated as the L&S (and no trackfile will be the DT2). If the DT2 is deleted, it is not automatically replaced.

HAFU Symbology

HAFU Labels 3.png
L&S Labels 1.png
  1. Upper HAFU Shape - The top shape of the HAFU indicates the onboard identification element, either from automatic ID logic or manual Pilot ID (PLID). The upper HAFU is also displayed for a SURV or PPLI-only track. For a SURV-only trackfile, it is displayed 2/3 size. For a F/F-only trackfile, the upper half is entirely removed. The upper shape governs the color of the entire symbol (green, yellow, or red). F/F-only symbology is prioritized over SURV-only symbology. PPLI-only symbology is prioritized over both F/F and SURV.
  2. Lower HAFU Shape - The bottom, upside-down shape of the HAFU indicates the offboard (Datalink) identification of the trackfile and that there is offboard sensor contribution to the MSI trackfile.
  3. Vector Stem - This line indicates the trackfile's track over the ground. On the Attack format, this is relative to ownship due to the format being a warped B-scope projection. On the SA format, this is the "absolute" ground track. The stem is not displayed on the Azimuth/Elevation format due to its boresight presentation.
  4. Center Symbol - The symbol in the center of the HAFU provides various pieces of key information about the trackfile. A blank center with a 3/4 size HAFU indicates a SURV-only track. A minuscule dot in the center and the absence of the upper HAFU shape indicates an F/F-only trackfile.
    1. L&S Star - Indicates the track is the current Launch & Steering (L&S) target.
    2. DT2 Diamond - Indicates the track is the current Secondary Designated Target (DT2).
    3. Numeric Rank - All onboard trackfiles other than the L&S or DT2 are assigned a threat rank based on current flight parameters relative to the ownship (1 being the highest potential threat). The rank numeric also serves as an indication that the trackfile is contributed to by the onboard Radar, as rank is exclusive to onboard tracks and all onboard tracks will have a rank, except the L&S/DT2. The Radar maintains up to 8 ranked trackfiles, in addition to the L&S and DT2 if designated.
    4. Angle-Only "A" - A letter A is displayed in the center for an angle only trackfile (AOT).
    5. SURV Donor Dot - A large dot in the center indicates a Surveillance (SURV) donor, e.g. an AWACS.
    6. F/F Donor Dot - A large dot on the left side of the HAFU shape indicates an F/F donor (i.e. an aircraft contributing to F/F, not one detected by an F/F donor).
  5. Altitude - The trackfile's current barometric altitude is indicated here in thousands of feet (e.g. 12 = 12,000). The altitude readout is only displayed for the L&S and DT2, as well as any trackfile under the cursor. The altitude readout is blank for an angle-only trackfile (AOT).
  6. Mach Number - The trackfile's ground speed as a percentage of the speed of sound (Mach). The Mach number is only displayed for the L&S and DT2, as well as any trackfile under the cursor. The Mach number is replaced with a letter J when the Radar determines a target is jamming (meaning it will also be an angle-only track).

MSI trackfiles throughout the avionics are displayed as HAFU (Hostile, Ambiguous, Friendly, or Unknown) symbols. The shape of these symbols indicates the identification of a trackfile as classified by automated and/or manual means. Furthermore, the HAFU symbol separately indicates the identification status for the track set by participants in the Link 16 Datalink network, such as other fighters or AWACS aircraft. In addition to the main shape, other symbology is associated with HAFUs to display information about the trackfile.

Trackfile Classification

Trackfiles can be manually classified via the Pilot ID (PLID) function on the Situation Awareness (SA) format. PLID is unavailable for PPLI trackfiles. In addition, the following automatic classifications will occur according to the following conditions:

  • Hostile
    • A negative IFF response is returned, and either:
      • An NCTR print returns with an aircraft type that is on the hostile coalition; or
      • Its offboard/Datalink classification is hostile (SURV or F/F)
  • Ambiguous
    • A negative IFF response is returned
  • Friendly
    • A positive IFF response is returned; or
    • The trackfile is contributed to by the Precise Participant Location and Identification (PPLI) Datalink net group
  • Unknown
    • Default classification until manually classified or above conditions are met

CAUTION

It is important pilots are aware that HAFU symbology only provides information based on the above logic. It is ultimately the pilot's responsibility to determine the identification of a target. Furthermore, no protections exist in the avionics to prohibit weapon release against non-hostile trackfiles.

IFF Interrogation

An IFF "pointed interrogation" can be sent to any onboard trackfile through any of the MSI formats (Attack, Az/El, or SA). This is done by placing the cursor over the trackfile's HAFU symbol and then depressing the Sensor Control switch. If the Radar is in STT, depressing the Sensor Control switch will command a pointed interrogation on the L&S, regardless of the cursor position. A pointed interrogation commands the Combined Interrogator/Transponder (CIT) to perform a single 22° scan centered on the selected trackfile. This will interrogate the selected trackfile and any others within this narrow scan width.

On the Azimuth/Elevation format, additional CIT settings can be configured to perform automatic pointed interrogations on the L&S trackfile or blanket and much wider "scan interrogations" centered on the L&S.

The result of an interrogation will be indicated by the MSI track's classification and HAFU symbol changing to friendly, ambiguous, or hostile.

A/A Radar/Attack Format

The Radar/Attack format (RDR ATTK) is the primary interface for the A/A Radar. It serves as both a display of raw Radar hits and correlated MSI trackfiles. The format can be invoked from the [TAC] menu. Furthermore, when the RDDI cannot accept TDC assignment and the Sensor Control switch is bumped right, the Attack format is invoked on the RDDI. This also occurs when entering A/A master mode.

The Radar/Attack format doubles as the A/G Radar format. The A/G Radar format is accessed from the A/A Radar/Attack format by pressing the SURF option at PB3, which is available in NAV or A/G master mode. In A/A master mode, this option is removed. On the A/G Radar format, PB3 has an AIR option to access the A/A format.

Tactical Region

RDR ATTK Tactical Region Labels 2.png
  1. Tactical Region - The Attack format provides a top-down view of targets. The area in which they are displayed is termed the "tactical region" which is formed by a green outline around the format. The Attack format covers a 140° region (±70°) which is termed the attack region and spans the Radar gimbal limits. The format is a B-scope projection, meaning that the vector stems on HAFU symbols for MSI trackfiles indicate their aspect to ownship as opposed to their absolute direction. Refer to the image below. The tactical region vertically represents a range scale between 5 and 120 miles which is adjustable by the pilot or via the ARSA function. Due to the small angle-only trackfile (AOT) zone at the top, the upper 6% of the total range scale is not actually represented.
  2. Scale Marks - The tactical region is comprised of scale marks along all sides to more easily determine target range and azimuth. The top/bottom tick marks are placed in 30° azimuth increments each. The farthest left/right ticks are separated 10° from the tactical region border. The left/right side tick marks are placed in distance increments equal to 25% of the selected range scale (e.g. at an 80nm scale, each tick is 20nm apart). When 5nm or 10nm is selected, the increment is 20% of the total 5/10nm.
  3. AOT Zone - A separate thin rectanglular area above the main tactical region is termed the angle-only trackfile (AOT) zone or "dugout". This is where angle-only trackfiles are displayed for which the Radar has only determined a valid angle and no range. The AOT zone occupies the top 6% of the overall tactical region.
  4. Range Scale Arrows - These arrows increase and decrease the maximum range scale. The available ranges are 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160nm. Note that when an L&S target is designated, Automatic Range Scale Adjustment will occur except when manually overridden.
  5. Maximum Range Scale - This value indicates the maximum range from ownship currently being displayed by the tactical region as set by the range scale arrows, except in certain cases like Expanded (EXP) mode or SCAN RAID. Note that the last 6% of the maximum range scale is not actually displayed due to the AOT zone taking up the top 6% of the tactical region. For example, if the maximum range scale is 20nm, the maximum range is actually 18.8nm (94% of 20).
  6. Minimum Range Scale - This value indicates the minimum range from ownship currently being displayed by the tactical region. This is almost always 0nm (i.e. ownship is at the bottom of the format), except when in the Expanded (EXP) TWS format or SCAN RAID/RAID modes.
FA18 B-SCOPE vs POLAR.png

Automatic Range Scale Adjustment (ARSA)

Automatic Range Scale Adjustment (ARSA) is a function of the Attack format which automatically adjusts the range scale so as to keep the pilot-designated Launch & Steering (L&S) trackfile and the Secondary Designated Target (DT2) visible in the tactical region.

The range scale is automatically changed so that the L&S or DT2, whichever is farthest from ownship, is displayed between 40% and 90% of the range scale. In RWS or TWS, ARSA can only increment the range scale to accomplish this. In STT, ARSA can both increment and decrement the range scale.

ARSA is overridden and disabled if the pilot manually adjusts the range scale. The RSET option re-enables ARSA.

Raw Radar Hits

The actual returns of the Radar are termed raw "hits". A hit is contrasted with a Radar trackfile in that a hit represents a fixed position at which the Radar has detected a target. The position of a hit in space is frozen, whereas the position of a trackfile is extrapolated between detections. The Radar determines when two or more hits represent a moving target and correlates them into a single trackfile. Up to 10 Radar trackfiles and 64 raw hits can be processed.

A raw hit is represented by a green brick symbol on the Attack format, while a trackfile is represented as a HAFU symbol. Although trackfiles are displayed on the Attack, Azimuth/Elevation, and Situation Awareness formats, only the Attack format displays raw hits.

A hit is considered to be "associated" when it is correlated with a trackfile. An unassociated hit has not been correlated to a trackfile. This is also called an "unfiled target." Unassociated hits most commonly occur when the maximum number of Radar trackfiles (10) have been created.

In RWS mode, all associated hits are displayed along with only certain trackfiles. When a Radar trackfile is displayed in RWS, its HAFU is displayed ontop of the associated hits. In TWS, the same situation occurs but all trackfiles that exist are always displayed. TWS associated hits are also displayed at lower intensity. TWS also provides the ability to hide associated hits for a more decluttered view of trackfiles.

All unassociated hits are always displayed in all modes so as to prevent a situation where the Radar sees a target but no hit nor trackfile is displayed for it.

Right when a hit is created, it begins "aging". When a hit has completely aged out the brick is removed from the display. As a hit ages, the brick symbol starts to dim until disappearing. The time taken for a hit to age out is defined by the pilot via the option on the DATA sublevel (PB10). This can be as short as 2 seconds or as long as 32 seconds. An exception applies to associated hits in TWS mode which have a fixed age-out setting of 2 seconds.

A longer age-out time will result in a longer "history trail" effect when a single target is continuously re-detected by the Radar. Conversely, with a short age-out time it is possible for a hit to disappear before the next hit for that same target is created, if the time it takes for the Radar to revisit the target is longer than the age-out time.

Radar Scan Volume

  1. Elevation Caret - The elevation caret indicates the current vertical angle of the Radar antenna. In the RWS, TWS, and VS search modes the antenna elevation is stabilized to the horizon and so is the caret; i.e. the middle mark on the scale represents the horizon independent of ownship aircraft attitude. In STT or ACM, it indicates the actual vertical angle of the antenna relative to the aircraft body and is affected by pitch. The caret can deflect up to ±60°. Tick marks are placed in 10° increments for the first ±30°.
  2. B-Sweep Line - The B-sweep line indicates the current horizontal position of the Radar antenna. In the RWS, TWS, and VS search modes, this always indicates the horizontal position relative to the horizon, independent of ownship aircraft attitude. In ACM and STT, the B-sweep indicates the horizontal position relative to the aircraft body and is thus affected by roll.
  3. Elevation Bar Select - This option cycles through the available elevation bar settings of 1, 2, 4, and 6 bars. The first number indicates the selected bar setting and the second indicates the bar the scan frame is currently on. Note that in TWS, 1 bar is not available.
  4. Azimuth Width Select - This option cycles the azimuth width setting through 20°, 40°, 60°, 80°, and 140° widths. Note that in TWS the largest available width is limited by the elevation bar setting.
  5. PRF Select - This option cycles the Radar pulse repetition frequency (PRF) through medium (MED), high (HI), and interleaved (INTL). When INTL is selected, the actual current PRF of MED or HI is displayed below it. When the range scale is set to 5nm, only MED is available. In VS, only HI is available.
  6. Cursor - The Attack format cursor consists of two vertical lines and is slewed with the TDC. Among numerous other functions discussed in subsequent sections, the cursor indicates the vertical scan volume coverage. The maximum and minimum altitudes (MSL) covered by the current scan volume, at the cursor's current position, are indicated in thousands of feet above and below the cursor. These numbers are only displayed when the cursor is in the tactical region (and not in the AOT zone). The maximum/minimum values are 99/-99.
RDR ATTK Scan Volume Labels 2.png

The size of the volume of space which the Radar scans is defined by the scan azimuth width and the elevation bar setting. In the RWS, TWS, and VS modes, the scan elevation and azimuth are stabilized to the horizon, meaning changes to the aircraft's attitude such as rolling or pitching do not affect the orientation of the volume of space covered by the scan. In the ACM modes, these parameters are stabilized to the aircraft body and are thus affected by pitch and roll. In STT, this is inapplicable since the antenna is constantly slaved to a single target.

As described above, the scan azimuth width and elevation bar can be changed by the pilot on the Attack format in RWS, TWS, or VS. In ACM, these properties are fixed to the ACM mode used. In STT, the volume is not applicable since the antenna is slaved to a single target. In RWS, scan volume parameters (and other parameters) are saved to each A/A missile type, allowing for three setting presets in RWS. These presets can be changed; refer to the RWS SET Function.

The total azimuth width/elevation bar coverage is termed the scan volume. A complete set of horizontal sweeps at the set azimuth width for each elevation bar set is termed a single scan frame. A scan frame thus takes more time to complete with a larger scan volume (azimuth width/bar setting). Since the scan volume is defined by angles, the physical space covered is a cone shape and increases as range from ownship increases.

A larger scan volume will provide greater situational awareness as the Radar has the potential to detect more targets. However, a smaller scan volume allows the Radar to complete scan frames in a shorter amount of time, giving it a higher update rate on targets or better trackfile "quality." This is particularly important for AMRAAM missile guidance. The pilot must weigh these factors against the tactical situation.

Azimuth Width

The azimuth width of the scan is defined in degrees and set with the option at PB19 on the Attack format (refer to image above). The width can also be quickly set with a "cursor bump" feature; refer to Cursor Range/Azimuth Bumping. The setting is the total degrees covered about the scan center; for example, an 80° azimuth setting results in the antenna scanning ±40° about the scan center. In search, the azimuth scan center is normally defined as an absolute bearing from ownship, meaning it will be affected by turns.

The azimuth width is visualized on the Attack format by the movement of the B-sweep line (the current horizontal antenna position) and on the Azimuth/Elevation format by the Radar field of view box.

Azimuth Scan Centering

(Not yet implemented) The azimuth scan center can be adjusted on the Attack format in RWS, TWS, or VS using the cursor. With the cursor over empty space (not over a trackfile or raw hit) and inside the tactical region, depressing/releasing the TDC within 1 second sets the scan center at that location. The scan center is defined as an absolute bearing off the ownship and not a stabilized heading. This is contrasted with Spotlight which is space-stabilized. Spotlight is commanded by holding the TDC for more than 1 second.

If the commanded scan center would not permit the entire scan azimuth width to be utilized due to Radar gimbal limits, the actual center is adjusted to utilize the entire width selected. For example, with a 60° (±30°) azimuth, the scan center will not be set any closer than 30° from the left or right edge of the tactical region.

In TWS, automatic scan centering is available which has a different mechanization. However, the above applies in TWS when manual centering is selected. Refer to TWS Scan Centering Modes.

Scan centering can also be done in a very similar way from the Azimuth/Elevation (Az/El) format. Refer to Az/El Radar Functions.

Elevation Bar

The Radar antenna can be commanded to vertically scan a range of "bars" at PB6 on the Attack format (refer to image above). A single bar is equal to one complete horizontal sweep at a given elevation angle. A 1 bar setting simply fixes the elevation to one angle set by the pilot. Higher bar settings will automatically adjust the antenna elevation downwards after every sweep in order to increase the volume of space being scanned in the frame. At the end of each scan frame, the antenna returns up to the first bar (as opposed to going through each bar backwards); refer to the diagram below.

The spacing between bars is normally 1.2°. If a 5 mile range scale is set on the Attack format in RWS or VS, the spacing is set to 4.2°. If 2 bars is selected in TWS, the spacing is 2.0°.

The height of the current scan volume accounting for the bar setting is visualized on the Attack format by the cursor, which displays altitude coverage at a given range, and on the Azimuth/Elevation format by the Radar field of view box. The current bar being scanned is indicated at PB6 on the Attack format.

Elevation Centering

In RWS, TWS, or VS, the elevation angle can be adjusted using Antenna Elevation Wheel on the throttle. In a multiple bar scan, the entire volume (all bars) is adjusted uniformly. The current elevation of the antenna is indicated on the Attack format by the elevation caret.

In TWS with AUTO or BIAS scan centering selected, the elevation angle is automatically controlled and cannot be changed. Refer to TWS Scan Centering Modes.

The elevation angle can also be adjusted in a different manner using the cursor on the Azimuth/Elevation format. Refer to Az/El Radar Functions.

FA18 2BAR.png
FA18 4BAR.png
FA18 6BAR.png

Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF)

The pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is the number of times per second the Radar actually transmits a pulse. More frequent pulses result in greater detection range, but less frequent pulses result in better overall detection of targets with low closure rate.

The three pilot-selectable PRFs (PB1, refer to image above) are medium (MED), high (HI), and interleaved (INTL). However, only MED is available when the Attack format range scale is set to 5nm in RWS/VS and only HI is available whenever in VS. A pulse Doppler illumination (PDI) mode is also available for guiding the AIM-7 Sparrow missile when it is selected. Refer to Pulse Doppler Illumination.

In summary, MED is typically used at closer range or whenever a target has a relatively low closure rate. HI is typically used at farther range. The INTL option alternates between HI and MED, which takes advantage of the characteristics of both.

With INTL selected the PRF is interleaved by alternating HI/MED every other bar and then alternating which bar gets HI or MED every other frame, so that all parts of the scan volume are ultimately seen with both HI and MED PRF. For example, with a 4 bar setting, one frame would alternate HI-MED-HI-MED, then the next frame would alternate MED-HI-MED-HI, and repeat.

Common Top-Level Format

The following are the "top-level" Attack format options which are common regardless of the selected search mode (RWS, TWS, or VS).

RDR ATTK Common Labels 1.png
  1. Radar Status/Channel - The Radar status (top) and channel being transmitted on (bottom) is indicated here.
  2. Radar Mode - The current search mode of RWS, TWS, or VS is indicated here. Pressing this option will cycle modes. When in STT or any ACM mode, RTS is indicated above the mode to instead indicate the mode which will be commanded upon Return to Search (RTS), rather than indicating the current mode.
  3. Radar Channel - Not yet implemented.
  4. DATA Sublevel - Invokes the DATA sublevel.
  5. NCTR - When boxed, commands a Non-Cooperative Target Recognition print when in STT. The Radar attempts to determine the target aircraft type by its jet engine modulation (JEM) signature.
  6. RSET - The RSET option commands the following functions to essentially reset the Attack format display and modes. RSET is boxed for 2 seconds after being pressed, indicating it was selected.
    1. Removes the Launch & Steering (L&S) and Secondary Designated Target (DT2) designations from any trackfiles. However, in STT, the L&S cannot be removed.
    2. Re-enables Automatic Range Scale Adjustment (ARSA).
    3. Deselects the HITS option in TWS.
    4. Removes the scan center bias in TWS (changes from BIAS to AUTO mode).
    5. Exits the Expanded (EXP) TWS format.
    6. Exits the STT RAID and TWS SCAN RAID modes.
  7. SIL - Commands the Radar into Silent mode. SIL is boxed when in Silent mode.
  8. Selected Weapon - When an A/A weapon is selected, its type and quantity is indicated here just as on the HUD. The option is crossed out when firing interlocks are not met.
  9. Radar Gain - The Radar gain (sensitivity) is indicated here. No manual gain control is available.
  10. Ownship Speed - Ownship aircraft speed in both indicated knots (IAS) and Mach number is shown here, as on the HUD.
  11. Ownship Altitude - Ownship aircraft altitude is indicated here in either barometric or Radar altitude, mirroring the HUD.
  12. Ownship Heading - Current ownship heading is indicated here in degrees magnetic or true, depending on the aircraft-wide setting through the HSI format.
  13. Horizon Line and Velocity Vector - This horizon line and velocity vector mirrors the HUD, except the velocity vector does not indicate sideways velocity (i.e. is always caged ). The indication behaves such that the velocity vector is kept in one spot on the format and the horizon line orients itself relative to it. The horizon line is display-limited at ±6°. When limited, the horizon line flashes. The horizon line and velocity vector are removed when DCLTR1 or DCLTR2 is selected.
  14. Cursor - Two vertical lines form the Attack format cursor, which is slewed with the TDC. When the cursor is in the tactical region (and not the AOT zone), the maximum/minimum altitude covered by the current scan volume at the current cursor position is indicated in thousands of feet above and below the cursor. The cursor is used for many functions, including:
    1. Selecting options in lieu of pushbutton
    2. Bumping the range scale and scan azimuth width
    3. Designating trackfiles
    4. Acquiring trackfiles and raw hits into STT
    5. Scan centering
    6. Slewing the scan volume in Spotlight mode

A/A Waypoint and Bearing/Range Cues

The following symbology is provided on the Attack format for referencing bearing/range (BRA) from ownship and the A/A waypoint, if defined via the HSI DATA sublevel. Referencing the position of targets to a common A/A waypoint (universally termed a "bullseye") or the ownship aircraft position is often important in tactical communications in the A/A environment.

  1. A/A Waypoint Symbol - When an A/A waypoint ("bullseye") is defined, its position is indicated within the tactical region by a circle symbol. If the A/A waypoint is also the selected steer-to waypoint, it is instead displayed as a diamond. In either case, an arrow points from the symbol to the north direction. A dot is placed in the center of the symbol when the TDC is assigned to the Attack format.
  2. A/A Waypoint to Aircraft BRA - This indicates the bearing and range from the A/A waypoint to the ownship aircraft. This cue is not displayed when no A/A waypoint has been defined through the HSI format.
  3. A/A Waypoint to Cursor BRA - This indicates the bearing and range from the A/A waypoint ("bullseye") to the cursor. This cue is not displayed when no A/A waypoint has been defined through the HSI format. When the A/A waypoint is not located within the tactical region, its normal symbol (circle/diamond symbol) is displayed to the left of this bearing/range indicator.
  4. Aircraft to Cursor BRA - Bearing and range (BRA) from ownship to the cursor is indicated here. This number is often important in communicating relative target positions. The display of this BRA can be toggled on the DATA sublevel.
RDR ATTK BRA Labels 1.png

Launch & Steering Target Cues

Regardless of whether in TWS, RWS, or STT, the following common cues are displayed on the Attack format when a trackfile is designated as the Launch & Steering (L&S) target. Not depicted in this section is missile attack symbology for the L&S (and other trackfiles) which includes launch regions and steering guidance. Refer to Attack Format Launch Acceptable Region Indications.

  1. L&S Trackfile - The L&S trackfile is always indicated by a typical HAFU symbol with a star symbol in the center to indicate that it is the L&S. Additionally, its Mach and altitude (in thousands of feet) are always displayed to the left and right of the HAFU.
  2. L&S Heading - The heading in degrees (technically the track over the ground) for the L&S trackfile is displayed here in the top left corner.
  3. Differential Altitude - The altitude difference in thousands of feet between ownship and the L&S trackfile is indicated next to the normal elevation caret. A negative value indicates the L&S is below ownship and a positive value indicates it is above. The differential altitude is blanked when DCLTR2 is selected.
  4. Range Caret - A range caret appears on the right side of the tactical region when an L&S is designated. The range caret will always be parallel to the L&S since it simply indicates its range.
  5. Closure Rate - The closure rate in knots (Vc) with the L&S is indicated next to the range caret. A negative value indicates increasing distance and vice-versa. The closure rate is blanked when DCLTR2 is selected.
RDR ATTK LnS Common Cues.png
Sours: https://wiki.hoggitworld.com/view/F/A-18C

Topic outline

  • General

    General

    Unguided on board, picture of kaltokri, GemeinfreiIn this course we will describe the basic weapon systems and their deployment. With this we build on the basic course and enable you to gain a first impression of the F/A-18C as a weapon platform.

    We have decided to split the topic of "weapon useage".  In this course we will only deal with unguided weapon systems.  These can be used without extensive knowledge of the aircraft's avionics systems. More complicated weapons such as laser-guided or precision-guided bombs as well as the AGM-65 Maverick or AGM-88 Harm, for example, will be covered in the Advanced Weapons course.

    We recommend that you take the Advanced flight courses first, because a pilot should first be able to fly his plane properly and master its systems before practising the use of weapons. However, we also know that many pilots are attracted by the thrill of experiencing a little "action" as soon as possible. We hope this course will whet your appetite for the F/A-18C so that you find the motivation to take the advanced flight courses.

  • The M61A2 Vulcan Cannon

    The M61A2 Vulcan Cannon

    Luftkampf, picture from kaltokri, GemeinfreiThe M61 Vulcan was developed by General Electric (later General Dynamics) and became the standard armament for fixed-wing aircraft in the United States over a period of nearly 50 years. It is a six-barrel Gatling cannon of 20 mm caliber. It has been used in many different aircraft.

    The M61A2 is a lighter version with thinner barrels, which was developed for the F/A-18.

    Source: Wikipedia

  • Undirected Rockets

    Undirected Rockets

    Unguided missiles, image from kaltokri, in the public domainThe F/A-18C can be equipped with unguided rockets at weapon stations 2, 3, 7 and 8. You can choose between single or pair mounting. There is a choice of Zuni or Hydra rockets in containers of different sizes. Compared to Mavericks or guided bombs, unguided rockets are not very effective. But well-placed unguided rockets can do a lot of damage, and with the higher number of weapons carried, a good pilot can destroy many more targets than with Mavericks. This is especially true for unarmored or lightly armoured targets.

    But even an attack in which all the rockets are fired in a single salvo can be devastating.

    Every pilot should be trained in the use of unguided rockets.

    The CCIP mode supports the pilot in targeting the rockets by permanently determining the point of impact, taking various factors into account.

    The biggest disadvantage of unguided rockets is their short range. Therefore the pilot has to reduce the flight altitude considerably and brings himself into range of enemy air defence guns.

  • Unguided Bombing

    Unguided Bombing

    Unguided bombs, picture from kaltokri, GemeinfreiAt the weapon stations 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 different types of bombs can be attached.

    The best known unguided are the Mk 83 and the bigger brother the Mk 84.

    There is a manageable number of parameters that can be set in the SMS for unguided bombs. Therefore the preparation of the dropping is easy. But the execution of a precise bomb release is difficult and needs practice. In spite of the CCIP mode, you have to keep the aircraft on the right course with sure instinct to get a good hit.

    Naturally, laser or GPS guided bombs are much more accurate. But the preparation for dropping guided bombs requires prior knowledge of avionics, which we only teach in the advanced course. Therefore we postpone the treatment of guided bombs to the second weapons course.

    It can be frustrating to practice dropping unguided bombs. Here the motto is "Don't give up!" and practice again and again. Of course, you can also ask a tutor for help if it doesn't work out at all. But every pilot should be able to drop unguided bombs accurately!

  • AIM-9M Sidewinder

    AIM-9M Sidewinder

    AIM-9, image from kaltokri, GemeinfreiThe AIM-9 is an American short-range air-to-air missile with a heat seeker head. This means that the missile steers itself automatically in the direction of the targeted heat source. Therefore the AIM-9 is a so-called, fire-and-forget weapon. This means that the pursuer no longer needs to have his target actively engaged and can turn to another threat. However, there is no guarantee that the missile will hit its target. This is because the heat seeker can be deceived by defensive measures. Compared to other air-to-air missiles, the AIM-9 has the lowest manufacturing costs.

    The development of the AIM-9 was started in the late 1940s by the Navy. When the counterpart to the AIM-9 (the Air Force's AIM-4 Falcon) did not produce the desired results in the Vietnam War, it was replaced by the AIM-9. Since the first product version was delivered in 1956, various variants of this rocket have been developed. This is partly due to the fact that the US Navy and the US Air Force continued the development separately. The reasons for this were the rivalry between the two branches of the armed forces and the different requirement profiles.

    In DCS we can use the following variants with the F/A-18C: AIM-9L, 9M, 9P and 9X. These can be attached to weapon stations 1, 2, 8 and 9.

    Source: Wikipedia

  • Countermeasures

    Countermeasures

    Gegenmaßnahmen, Bild von kaltokri, GemeinfreiIf you are operating in enemy territory, there is of course the danger of being attacked. This is done either by gunfire or by missiles. The attack can be from the ground or from another aircraft.

    We will deal with the area of aerial combat in detail later on in more specialised courses, since the topic is quite extensive. In this course we want to give you the basic knowledge of how to fend off guided missiles with the help of simple countermeasures. Whether they were fired from the ground or from the air is unimportant.

    The main differnce between guided missiles their guidance method, either radar-guided or heat-seekin (IR).

    IR Missiles

    IR missiles look for your heat signature and steer themselves towards it. You have already used them yourself in this course (see section "Sidewinder"). However, they have a much smaller range than many of the radar guided missiles. Therefore they are cheaper to produce and do not need an active radar souce to be guided into the target. An approaching IR missile is not detected by the F/A-18C. That means you have to keep your eyes open to see the exhaust tail of the launched missile. To fend off an approaching IR missile, you can eject flares. These are magnesium balls that are ignited when the flare is expended. They display a distinct heat signature, which should distract the seeker head of the IR missile.

    Radar Guided Missiles

    Radar guided missiles are usually larger and have a longer range than IR missiles. These are missiles that can be fired at targets outside the visual range. However, the targets have to be detected and locked by radar. Both are the detection and lock can be detected by the systems of the F/A-18C and so the pilot has warning. To ward off missiles that are guided by radar, chaff is dropped. These are packets (skillets) of aluminum strips. They spread out and form small radar reflective clouds in the air. The reflected the radar beams cause confusion for the sensors of the opponent.

  • Graduation

    Graduation

    Bomb release, image of kaltokri, GemeinfreiIn this course you have dealt with the simpler weapon systems which can be used without advanced avionics system knowledge. These include:

    • Aircraft's Cannon,
    • Unguided Missiles,
    • Unguided Bombs,
    • AIM-9M Sidewinder.

    As the second big block you dealt with the different countermeasures.

    Naturally there are other outsatnding  weapons, such as laser-guided or GPS-guided bombs, radar-guided missiles or missiles for Suppression of Enemy Air Defence (SEAD) missions. These we will deal with in the Advanced Weapon course. But first you should visit the F/A-18C Advanced flight Course, because there you will learn some concepts that are a prerequisites for these advanced weapons.

Sours: https://www.openflightschool.de/course/view.php?id=132
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| Chuck’s Guides | DCS Guides |

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C Hornet is one of the most iconic american aircraft operated within NATO forces. Designed to be a multi-purpose fighter and attack aircraft, the Hornet brings to the table advanced avionics, a robust fly-by-wire FCS (Flight Control System), a powerful radar and a new way to fly. Also, two words… Carrier. Operations. Need I say more?

Want to support Chuck’s Guides?

Table of Contents

PART 1 – INTRODUCTION
PART 2 – CONTROLS SETUP
PART 3 – COCKPIT & EQUIPMENT
PART 4 – START-UP PROCEDURE
PART 5 – TAKEOFF
PART 6 – LANDING
PART 7 – ENGINE & FUEL MANAGEMENT
PART 8 – PERFORMANCE & AERODYNAMICS
PART 9 – RADAR & SENSORS
PART 10 – OFFENCE: WEAPONS & ARMAMENT
PART 11 – DEFENCE: RWR & COUNTERMEASURES
PART 12 – DATALINK & IFF
PART 13 – RADIO TUTORIAL
PART 14 – FLIGHT CONTROLS & AUTOPILOT
PART 15 – NAVIGATION & ICLS LANDING
PART 16 – AIR-TO-AIR REFUELING
PART 17 – OTHER RESOURCES

Last Updated: 21/08/2021

Revision History:
    -21/08/2021: Added JHMCS Alignment Procedure, added AGM-84H SLAM-ER, Added RAID STT (RAID SAM) Mode
    -23/05/2021: Updated IFF Interrogation logic (Sensor Control Switch DEPRESS + RIGHT)
    -4/05/2021: Added ATFLIR targeting pod section, added HARM Pre-Briefed Modes (Aircraft + HARM Lofting), added HARM Self-Protect Pullback Sub-Mode, added radar Spotlight mode, updated, radar TWS logic, typo fixes and other small corrections
    -4/03/2021: Added GMT radar mode with Maverick tutorial, added SEA radar mode with Harpoon tutorial, added new JHMCS section, added MGRS Grid coordinates, added AZ/EL page, added Auto IFF, added ECM, typo and procedure fixes throughout the whole document
    -22/12/2020: Corrected HACQ and LHACQ ranges for the JHMCS radar lock
    -25/09/2020: Added markpoint tutorials & corrected typos
    -22/09/2020: Start-Up procedure updated for INS update, Carrier takeoff procedure updated for Supercarrier, Radar acquisition modes clarified, ACM radar modes clarified, JHMCS operation clarified, Targeting Pod updated, Added Air-to-Ground Radar MAP & Expanded modes, Weapon section re-structured, Updated JSOW tutorials, Updated JDAM tutorials, Updated GBU-12 tutorial, Fuel Dump clarifications, Master Modes clarifications, Engine section expanded, Fuel section expanded, AGM-84E SLAM tutorials added, MK20 Rockeye tutorial added, AGM-65 IR Maverick tutorial with tgp added, AGM-65E Laser Maverick tutorial updated, HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator) section expanded, RWR symbology clarified (N, I, A, U, F), Landing tips added (including HUD declutter and velocity vector caging)
    -05/06/2020: Fixed Walleye Datalink tutorial
    -31/12/2019: Added JHMCS LHACQ and HACQ mode descriptions
    -30/12/2019: Added TWS Radar Mode section (including RAID & EXP sub-modes), added AGM-62 Walleye II procedure with and without AWW-13 Datalink pod
    -16/11/2019: Corrected Air-to-Ground Weapon Tutorial 2.7 GPS Guided Ordnance (JDAM/JSOW with Targeting Pod & TOO Mode) with latest logic implemented
    -31/08/2019: Corrected IFF tutorial procedure to use Sensor Select Depress switch
    -28/08/2019: Added bookmarks
    -26/08/2019: Updated Sensors Section with LITENING II Targeting Pod, Added AGM-65E Maverick, AGM-84D Harpoon (BOL & R/BL), GPS-Guided Ordnance (Targeting Pod), and GBU-12 (Laser-Guided) Tutorials, Updated IFF & Datalink Section, Added hyperlinks in Table of Contents, Fixed Typos
    -21/07/2019: Updated Start-Up Procedure, Added IFF & Datalink Section, Added AGM-65F Maverick, AGM-88C HARM (TOO & SP), GBU-38 JDAM (Pre-Planned), AGM-154 JSOW (TOO), AIM-9X (JHMCS) & AIM-120 Tutorials, Re-wrote Sensors Section & Updated Radar Modes, Added FPAS page description, Fixed Typos
    -13/01/2019: Fixed typo in the Air-to-Air Radar Azimuth Scale Description
    -30/07/2018: Added Case III Recovery (ICLS Landing) Tutorial
    -21/06/2018: Added IFF section in Radar & Sensors section, updated radio tutorial, radar section, carrier operation procedures, RWR section, catapult takeoff trim table, and AoA Indexer tables
    -12/06/2018: Added hyperlink to Backy51’s Checklist and Redkite’s Controls Template
    -11/06/2018: Typos corrected, updated RWR section, corrected Carrier Landing procedure
    -9/06/2018: Initial Release

PDF Download:

Sours: https://www.mudspike.com/chucks-guides-dcs-f-a-18c-hornet/
DCS F/A-18c Hornet Weapons Programming Tutorial

F/A-18C Hornet - Weapons QRH Quick Reference Handbook / Checklist / Kneeboard by Pokeraccio V.2.0 ***17MAY21*** Update

F/A-18C Hornet - Weapons QRH Quick Reference Handbook / Checklist / Kneeboard by Pokeraccio V.2.0 ***17MAY21*** Update

F/A-18C Hornet - Weapons QRH Quick Reference Handbook / Checklist / Kneeboard by Pokeraccio V.2.0 ***Update 17MAY21***

Hi all NEW VERSION 2.0 is here to celebrate the DCS 2.7!

Just a simple DCS F/A-18C Hornet Weapons QRH

F/A-18C Hornet - Weapons QRH Quick Reference Handbook / Checklist / Kneeboard by Pokeraccio V.2.0 *Update17MAY21*

***17MAY21*** UPDATE


Hi all NEW VERSION 2.0 is here to celebrate the DCS 2.7!

Just a simple DCS F/A-18C Hornet Weapons QRH made up by 10 pages (+10 pages night friendly).
Since update 1.7b added as a test 1 more page LIM (Limitations) also give it a sort of ipad look both clean/dirt version (removed since V1.8), to print or use as kneeboard in Game and/or on IPAD with some useful info about F/A-18C Hornet Armaments/Weapons/Flight Deck procedure, very basic but handy especially during the first missions.
Tested in Open Beta, used also in Stable just some feature may be not present, yet.
If you need for any reason an older version drop me a line on forum page.

To have it in Kneeboard, just unzip and copy png files accordingly (if folders are not there, create new ones):

\Saved Games\DCS\Kneeboard\FA-18C_hornet
or
\Saved Games\DCS.openbeta\Kneeboard\FA-18C_hornet

The basic idea has been developed by others in various way, I just made my own version for personal use. As per request, I'd like to share it.

Please feel free to join Forum Page for suggestion, correction etc etc not here on USER FILE section due to missing  notification, please write on the forum page:

https://forums.eagle.ru/showthread.php?t=247186


If you need a pdf version (Day/Night) :

https://www.digitalcombatsimulator.com/en/files/3316602/


Disclaimer:
This is a personal, self made, QRH that I am pleased to share with the entire community of DCS-WORLD F/A-18C enthusiasts, also to thank all the users that share their files with us all, and contents creators which I referred to when I made this document. I hope you’ll find it useful.
Please, DO not use for real world OPS or training - Use this guide only for DCS - F/A-18C
Enjoy. Cheers

by Pokeraccio

Changelog:

V2.0
-NEW VERSION is here to celebrate the DCS 2.7;
-New document, layout, colors, graphics, overall adjustments;
-Clearer Resolution, quite ok also in VR;
-AGM-88C HARM PreBriefed Mode/Code List added; Self Prot. - PullBack Sub Mode;
-BDU 45/ 45B Training Bombs added;
-AGM-84H SLAM-ER added (so we'll be ready);
-added one page and revisited page numbers;
-Correction of inaccuracies in general on the whole document;
-updated system logic up to Open Beta 2.7.0.5659.

V1.9
-GBU-24 Paveway III added;
-added one page and revisited page numbers
-Some layout adjustments
-correction of inaccuracies in general on the whole document

V1.8
-AGM-84E SLAM added;
-some small system update (TGP),
-ZIP Content: PDF Frame vers, PNG Frame and No Frame vers, glass and dust version removed as not so useful (If you liked I can provide it).

V1.7b
-Small Update, correction of inaccuracies in general on the whole document, added as a test a new page on DAY version (Limitations), graphics enhancements with ipad look, dust and finger prints, both version clean/dirt available in zip.

V1.7
-General Update, corrected SMS settings for Unguided Bombs, pages/color, added 2 page (total of 7 pages) on LEP-List of Effective Pages= changed/new pages List since last update

V1.6
-added AGM-62 Walleye II;
-General Document Update, pages/color/dimensions, added 1 page (total of 5 pages),

V1.5nv
-Update pages 2/4 and 2/4 NV with MAVF/TGP Checklist

V1.4nv
-Update pages 1/4 and 1/4 NV with a TGP Checklist

V1.3nvBis
-Update Store Settings for CBUs Page 3/4

V1.3nv
-added Night friendly version

V1.3
- Harpoon added
- Page Order

Cheers

Pokeraccio

  • License: Freeware - Free version, Do Not Redistribute
  • Language: English
  • Size: 6.03 Mb
  • Downloaded: 9028
  • Comments: 31

Tags: F18, F18C, F/A-18C, F18 Hornet, F/A-18C Hornet, QRH, Quick Reference Handbook, Weapons Checklist, Weapons, Weapons Kneeboard, kneeboard, pokeraccio, TGP, Targeting Pod, armament, F18 Weapons System, GBU, LASER GUIDED, SLAM, SLAM-ER, Harpoon, HARM, Walleye

Sours: https://www.digitalcombatsimulator.com/en/files/3305957/

F18 weapons dcs

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DCS: F/A-18C Hornet: ATFLIR or LITENING II Which one should you use?

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